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Author Dalen, J.D.; Huijts, T.; Krokstad, S.; Eikemo, T.A. url  doi
  Title Are there educational differences in the association between self-rated health and mortality in Norway? The HUNT Study Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Scandinavian Journal of Public Health Abbreviated Journal Scand J Public Health  
  Volume 40 Issue 7 Pages 641-647  
  Keywords Adult; Aged; Aged, 80 and over; *Diagnostic Self Evaluation; *Educational Status; Female; Follow-Up Studies; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; Mortality/*trends; Norway/epidemiology; Proportional Hazards Models  
  Abstract AIMS: The aim of this study was to test whether the association between self-rated health and mortality differs between educational groups in Norway, and to examine whether health problems and health-related behaviour can explain any of these differences within a previously unexplored contextual setting. METHODS: The study used data from the Nord-Trondelag Health Study 84-86 (HUNT) with a 20-year follow up. The analyses were performed for respondents between 25-101 years at baseline (n = 56,788). The association between self-rated health and mortality was tested using Cox regression. RESULTS: The results indicate that although self-rated health is associated with mortality there is no difference in the association between self-rated health and mortality between educational groups. Introducing health-related variables did not have an impact on the result. CONCLUSIONS: Given the small educational differences in the association between self-rated health and mortality, this supports the reliability of self-reported health as a measurement for objective health.  
  Address Norwegian University Science and Technology, NTNU Dragvoll, Institutt for sosiologi og statsvitenskap, Trondheim, Norway. joakim.dalen@samfunn.ntnu.no  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1403-4948 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:23042460 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 1515  
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Author Ernstsen, L.; Strand, B.H.; Nilsen, S.M.; Espnes, G.A.; Krokstad, S. url  doi
  Title Trends in absolute and relative educational inequalities in four modifiable ischaemic heart disease risk factors: repeated cross-sectional surveys from the Nord-Trondelag Health Study (HUNT) 1984-2008 Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication BMC Public Health Abbreviated Journal BMC Public Health  
  Volume 12 Issue Pages 266  
  Keywords Adult; Cross-Sectional Studies; Diabetes Mellitus/*epidemiology; *Educational Status; Female; Humans; Hypercholesterolemia/*epidemiology; Hypertension/*epidemiology; Male; Middle Aged; Myocardial Ischemia/*epidemiology; Norway/epidemiology; Risk Factors; Smoking/*epidemiology  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: There has been an overall decrease in incident ischaemic heart disease (IHD), but the reduction in IHD risk factors has been greater among those with higher social position. Increased social inequalities in IHD mortality in Scandinavian countries is often referred to as the Scandinavian “public health puzzle”. The objective of this study was to examine trends in absolute and relative educational inequalities in four modifiable ischaemic heart disease risk factors (smoking, diabetes, hypertension and high total cholesterol) over the last three decades among Norwegian middle-aged women and men. METHODS: Population-based, cross-sectional data from The Nord-Trondelag Health Study (HUNT): HUNT 1 (1984-1986), HUNT 2 (1995-1997) and HUNT 3 (2006-2008), women and men 40-59 years old. Educational inequalities were assessed using the Slope Index of Inequality (SII) and The Relative Index of Inequality (RII). RESULTS: Smoking prevalence increased for all education groups among women and decreased in men. Relative and absolute educational inequalities in smoking widened in both genders, with significantly higher absolute inequalities among women than men in the two last surveys. Diabetes prevalence increased in all groups. Relative inequalities in diabetes were stable, while absolute inequalities increased both among women (p = 0.05) and among men (p = 0.01). Hypertension prevalence decreased in all groups. Relative inequalities in hypertension widened over time in both genders. However, absolute inequalities in hypertension decreased among women (p = 0.05) and were stable among men (p = 0.33). For high total cholesterol relative and absolute inequalities remained stable in both genders. CONCLUSION: Widening absolute educational inequalities in smoking and diabetes over the last three decades gives rise to concern. The mechanisms behind these results are less clear, and future studies are needed to assess if educational inequalities in secondary prevention of IHD are larger compared to educational inequalities in primary prevention of IHD. Continued monitoring of IHD risk factors at the population level is therefore warranted. The results emphasise the need for public health efforts to prevent future burdens of life-style-related diseases and to avoid further widening in socioeconomic inequalities in IHD mortality in Norway, especially among women.  
  Address Sor-Trondelag University College, Mauritz Hansens gt 2, 7004, Trondheim, Norway. linda.ernstsen@hist.no  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1471-2458 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:22471945; PMC3434116 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 1524  
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Author Nilsen, S.M.; Ernstsen, L.; Krokstad, S.; Westin, S. url  doi
  Title Educational inequalities in disability pensioning – the impact of illness and occupational, psychosocial, and behavioural factors: The Nord-Trondelag Health Study (HUNT) Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Scandinavian Journal of Public Health Abbreviated Journal Scand J Public Health  
  Volume 40 Issue 2 Pages 133-141  
  Keywords Adult; Aged; Cost of Illness; *Disability Evaluation; Disabled Persons/*statistics & numerical data; *Educational Status; Female; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; Norway; Pensions/*statistics & numerical data; Proportional Hazards Models; Psychology; Sex Distribution; Socioeconomic Factors  
  Abstract AIMS: Socioeconomic inequalities in disability pensioning are well established, but we know little about the causes. The main aim of this study was to disentangle educational inequalities in disability pensioning in Norwegian women and men. METHODS: The baseline data consisted of 32,948 participants in the Norwegian Nord-Trondelag Health Study (1995-97), 25-66 years old, without disability pension, and in paid work. Additional analyses were made for housewives and unemployed/laid-off persons. Information on the occurrence of disability pension was obtained from the National Insurance Administration database up to 2008. Data analyses were performed using Cox regression. RESULTS: We found considerable educational inequalities in disability pensioning, and the incidence proportion by 2008 was higher in women (25-49 years 11%, 50-66 years 30%) than men (25-49 years 6%, 50-66 years 24%). Long-standing limiting illness and occupational, psychosocial, and behavioural factors were not sufficient to explain the educational inequalities: young men with primary education had a hazard ratio of 3.1 (95% CI 2.3-4.3) compared to young men with tertiary education. The corresponding numbers for young women were 2.7 (2.1-3.1). We found small educational inequalities in the oldest women in paid work and no inequalities in the oldest unemployed/laid-off women and housewives. CONCLUSIONS: Illness and occupational, psychosocial, and behavioural factors explained some of the educational inequalities in disability pensioning. However, considerable inequalities remain after accounting for these factors. The higher incidence of disability pensioning in women than men and the small or non-existing educational inequalities in the oldest women calls for a gender perspective in future research.  
  Address Department of Public Health and General Practice, Faculty of Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway. sara.m.nilsen@ntnu.no  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1403-4948 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:22314253 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 1562  
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