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Author Fagernaes, C.F.; Heuch, I.; Zwart, J.A.; Winsvold, B.S.; Linde, M.; Hagen, K.   
  Title Blood pressure as a risk factor for headache and migraine: a prospective population-based study Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Eur J Neurol Abbreviated Journal European journal of neurology  
  Volume 22 Issue 1 Pages 156-62,  
  Keywords Adult; Aged; Blood Pressure/*physiology; Blood Pressure Determination; Female; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; Migraine Disorders/*epidemiology; Norway/epidemiology; Prevalence; Prospective Studies; Risk Factors; Tension-Type Headache/*epidemiology; HUNT2; HUNT3  
  Abstract BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: During the past decade, several population-based studies have found an inverse association between blood pressure (BP) and headache. However, most of them have a cross-sectional design or lack a validated definition of a headache-free population at baseline. Therefore, additional population-based studies using a clearly defined headache-free population and a prospective design are warranted. METHODS: Data from two large epidemiological studies, the Nord-Trondelag Health Survey 1995-1997 (HUNT 2) and 2006-2008 (HUNT 3), were used to evaluate the association between BP (systolic, diastolic and pulse pressure) at baseline and headache (migraine and tension type headache) at follow-up. RESULTS: An inverse relationship was found between all three BP measures at baseline in HUNT 2 and any headache in HUNT 3, more evident for systolic BP [odds ratio (OR) 0.90 per 10 mmHg increase in systolic BP, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.87-0.93, P  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Department of Neuroscience, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway. Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Fagernaes2015 Serial 1807  
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Author Gabin, J.M.; Tambs, K.; Saltvedt, I.; Sund, E.; Holmen, J. url  doi
  Title Association between blood pressure and Alzheimer disease measured up to 27 years prior to diagnosis: the HUNT Study Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Alzheimer's Research & Therapy Abbreviated Journal Alzheimers Res Ther  
  Volume 9 Issue 1 Pages 37  
  Keywords Age Distribution; Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Alzheimer Disease/*diagnosis/*epidemiology; Asymptomatic Diseases/*epidemiology; Blood Pressure Determination/statistics & numerical data; Comorbidity; Dementia/diagnosis/epidemiology; Disease Progression; Female; Humans; Hypertension/*diagnostic imaging/*epidemiology; Incidence; Longitudinal Studies; Male; Middle Aged; Norway/epidemiology; Prevalence; Reproducibility of Results; Risk Factors; Sensitivity and Specificity; Sex Distribution; Alzheimer disease; Blood pressure; Epidemiology; Prospective case cohort; Risk factors; Vascular dementia  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: A lot of attention has been paid to the relationship of blood pressure and dementia because epidemiological research has reported conflicting evidence. Observational data has shown that midlife hypertension is a risk factor for cognitive decline and dementia later in life, whereas there is evidence that low blood pressure is predictive in later life. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between dementia and blood pressure measured up to 27 years (mean 17.6 years) prior to ascertainment. METHODS: In Nord-Trondelag County, Norway, incident dementia data were collected during 1995-2011, and the diagnoses were validated by a panel of experts in the field. By using the subjects' personal identification numbers, the dementia data were linked to data from the Nord-Trondelag Health Study (the HUNT Study), a large, population-based health study performed in 1984-1986 (HUNT 1) and 1995-1997 (HUNT 2). A total of 24,638 participants of the HUNT Study were included in the present study, 579 of whom were diagnosed with Alzheimer disease, mixed Alzheimer/vascular dementia, or vascular dementia. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to analyze the association between dementia and blood pressure data from HUNT 1 and HUNT 2. RESULTS: Over the age of 60 years, consistent inverse associations were observed between systolic blood pressure and all-cause dementia, mixed Alzheimer/vascular dementia, and Alzheimer disease, but not with vascular dementia, when adjusting for age, sex, education, and other relevant covariates. This was observed for systolic blood pressure in both HUNT 1 and HUNT 2, regardless of antihypertensive medication use. There was an adverse association between systolic blood pressure, pulse pressure, and Alzheimer disease in individuals treated with antihypertensive medication under the age of 60 years. CONCLUSIONS: Our data are in line with those in previous studies demonstrating an inverse association between dementia and systolic blood pressure in individuals over the age of 60 years. We cannot exclude a survival effect, however. Among middle-aged subjects (<60 years), elevated systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure were associated with eventual Alzheimer disease in individuals who reported using antihypertensive medication.  
  Address HUNT Research Centre, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences , Department of Public Health and Nursing, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Forskningsveien 2, 7600, Levanger, Norway  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1758-9193 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:28569205; PMCID:PMC5452294 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 1900  
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Author Johansen, A.; Holmen, J.; Stewart, R.; Bjerkeset, O. url  doi
  Title Anxiety and depression symptoms in arterial hypertension: the influence of antihypertensive treatment. the HUNT study, Norway Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication European Journal of Epidemiology Abbreviated Journal Eur J Epidemiol  
  Volume 27 Issue 1 Pages 63-72  
  Keywords Adult; Aged; Antihypertensive Agents/*adverse effects/therapeutic use; Anxiety/*chemically induced/complications; Blood Pressure Determination; Cross-Sectional Studies; Depression/*chemically induced/complications; Drug Therapy, Combination; Female; Health Surveys; Humans; Hypertension/complications/*drug therapy/psychology; Logistic Models; Male; Middle Aged; Norway; Odds Ratio; Self Report  
  Abstract Antihypertensive drugs have been suggested to modulate symptoms of depression and anxiety. It is disputed whether this is due to the hypertension per se, its treatment, or both. The aim of this study was to investigate these associations in a large population sample. 55,472 participants in the Nord-Trondelag Health Study (HUNT 2, 1995-1997), Norway, who completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression rating Scale, were divided into 3 groups according to their diastolic blood pressure and antihypertensive treatment status. A cut-off of >/=90 mmHg diastolic blood pressure was used to identify hypertensive status. Differences in anxiety and depression symptom levels in untreated and treated hypertensives (all treatments) versus the normotensive reference group were explained by differences in age and gender distribution in the three groups in this study. However, the receipt of two or more antihypertensive drugs was associated with depressive symptoms alone (OR = 1.40, 95% CI = 1.03-1.90), but not with symptoms of anxiety (OR = 1.14, 95% CI = 0.83-1.57) or mixed anxiety and depression (OR = 1.19, 95% CI = 0.82-1.72) in the fully adjusted model, compared to untreated hypertension. Antihypertensive monotherapy (all agents) nor any single antihypertensive drug class were associated with symptoms of depression, anxiety, or mixed anxiety and depression. There may be a positive association between multi antihypertensive drug use and symptoms of depression, whereas this was not found in persons with symptoms of anxiety or mixed anxiety and depression. This might reflect poor antihypertensive treatment adherence leading to polypharmacy, or other unfavorable health behaviors in people with symptoms of pure depression.  
  Address Faculty of Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0393-2990 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:22183137 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 1533  
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