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Author Asvold, B.O.; Bjorngaard, J.H.; Carslake, D.; Gabrielsen, M.E.; Skorpen, F.; Davey Smith, G.; Romundstad, P.R. url  doi
  Title Causal associations of tobacco smoking with cardiovascular risk factors: a Mendelian randomization analysis of the HUNT Study in Norway Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication International Journal of Epidemiology Abbreviated Journal Int J Epidemiol  
  Volume 43 Issue 5 Pages 1458-1470  
  Keywords HUNT3; Smoking; blood pressure; body mass index; cholesterol; glomerular filtration rate; heart rate  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoking has been associated with cardiovascular risk factors including adverse serum lipid levels, central obesity and higher resting heart rate, but lower blood pressure and body mass index (BMI). We used a Mendelian randomization approach to study whether these associations may be causal. If smoking affects cardiovascular risk factors then rs1051730 T alleles, predictors of increased smoking quantity, should be associated with cardiovascular risk factors among smokers, but not among never smokers. METHODS: Among 56 625 participants of a population-based study, we estimated associations of rs1051730 T alleles with cardiovascular risk factors and examined whether the associations differed by smoking status. RESULTS: Rs1051730 T alleles were associated with lower BMI and waist and hip circumferences and higher resting heart rate and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and the associations were strongest among current smokers (P interaction 5 x 10(-9) to 0.01). Rs1051730 T alleles were associated with lower systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure and higher HDL cholesterol concentrations, but these associations did not robustly differ by smoking status. There were no convincing associations of rs1051730 T alleles with waist-hip ratio, diastolic blood pressure and non-fasting serum concentrations of non-HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose and C-reactive protein. CONCLUSIONS: This Mendelian randomization analysis provides evidence that smoking may cause lower BMI and waist and hip circumferences and higher resting heart rate and eGFR. The findings further suggest that smoking is not a major determinant of waist-hip ratio or adverse blood pressure, serum lipid or glucose levels.  
  Address Department of Public Health, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway, Department of Endocrinology, St Olavs Hospital, Trondheim University Hospital, Trondheim, Norway, MRC Integrative Epidemiology Unit, School of Social and Community Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK, Department of Cancer Research and Molecular Medicine and Department of Laboratory Medicine, Children's and Women's Health, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0300-5771 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:24867305 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 1636  
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Author Asvold, B.O.; Midthjell, K.; Krokstad, S.; Rangul, V.; Bauman, A. url  doi
  Title Prolonged sitting may increase diabetes risk in physically inactive individuals: an 11 year follow-up of the HUNT Study, Norway Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Diabetologia Abbreviated Journal Diabetologia  
  Volume 60 Issue 5 Pages 830-835  
  Keywords Adult; Body Mass Index; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/*epidemiology/metabolism; Exercise/physiology; Female; Humans; Incidence; Leisure Activities; Male; Middle Aged; *Sedentary Lifestyle; Epidemiology; Sedentary lifestyle; Type 2 diabetes mellitus  
  Abstract AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: We examined the association between sitting time and diabetes incidence, overall and by strata of leisure-time physical activity and BMI. METHODS: We followed 28,051 adult participants of the Nord-Trondelag Health Study (the HUNT Study), a population-based study, for diabetes incidence from 1995-1997 to 2006-2008 and estimated HRs of any diabetes by categories of self-reported total daily sitting time at baseline. RESULTS: Of 28,051 participants, 1253 (4.5%) developed diabetes during 11 years of follow-up. Overall, sitting >/=8 h/day was associated with a 17% (95% CI 2, 34) higher risk of developing diabetes compared with sitting </=4 h/day, adjusted for age, sex and education. However, the association was attenuated to a non-significant 9% (95% CI -5, 26) increase in risk after adjustment for leisure-time physical activity and BMI. The association between sitting time and diabetes risk differed by leisure-time physical activity (p Interaction = 0.01). Among participants with low leisure-time physical activity (</=2 h light activity per week and no vigorous activity), sitting 5-7 h/day and >/=8 h/day were associated with a 26% (95% CI 2, 57) and 30% (95% CI 5, 61) higher risk of diabetes, respectively, compared with sitting </=4 h/day. There was no corresponding association among participants with high leisure-time physical activity (>/=3 h light activity or >0 h vigorous activity per week). There was no statistical evidence that the association between sitting time and diabetes risk differed by obesity (p Interaction = 0.65). CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Our findings suggest that total sitting time has little association with diabetes risk in the population as a whole, but prolonged sitting may contribute to an increased diabetes risk among physically inactive people.  
  Address School of Public Health, Sydney University, Sydney, NSW, Australia  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0012-186X ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:28054097 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 1879  
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Author Berndt, S.I.; Gustafsson, S.; Magi, R.; Ganna, A.; Wheeler, E.; Feitosa, M.F.; Justice, A.E.; Monda, K.L.; Croteau-Chonka, D.C.; Day, F.R.; Esko, T.; Fall, T.; Ferreira, T.; Gentilini, D.; Jackson, A.U.; Luan, J.'an; Randall, J.C.; Vedantam, S.; Willer, C.J.; Winkler, T.W.; Wood, A.R.; Workalemahu, T.; Hu, Y.-J.; Lee, S.H.; Liang, L.; Lin, D.-Y.; Min, J.L.; Neale, B.M.; Thorleifsson, G.; Yang, J.; Albrecht, E.; Amin, N.; Bragg-Gresham, J.L.; Cadby, G.; den Heijer, M.; Eklund, N.; Fischer, K.; Goel, A.; Hottenga, J.-J.; Huffman, J.E.; Jarick, I.; Johansson, A.; Johnson, T.; Kanoni, S.; Kleber, M.E.; Konig, I.R.; Kristiansson, K.; Kutalik, Z.; Lamina, C.; Lecoeur, C.; Li, G.; Mangino, M.; McArdle, W.L.; Medina-Gomez, C.; Muller-Nurasyid, M.; Ngwa, J.S.; Nolte, I.M.; Paternoster, L.; Pechlivanis, S.; Perola, M.; Peters, M.J.; Preuss, M.; Rose, L.M.; Shi, J.; Shungin, D.; Smith, A.V.; Strawbridge, R.J.; Surakka, I.; Teumer, A.; Trip, M.D.; Tyrer, J.; Van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, J.V.; Vandenput, L.; Waite, L.L.; Zhao, J.H.; Absher, D.; Asselbergs, F.W.; Atalay, M.; Attwood, A.P.; Balmforth, A.J.; Basart, H.; Beilby, J.; Bonnycastle, L.L.; Brambilla, P.; Bruinenberg, M.; Campbell, H.; Chasman, D.I.; Chines, P.S.; Collins, F.S.; Connell, J.M.; Cookson, W.O.; de Faire, U.; de Vegt, F.; Dei, M.; Dimitriou, M.; Edkins, S.; Estrada, K.; Evans, D.M.; Farrall, M.; Ferrario, M.M.; Ferrieres, J.; Franke, L.; Frau, F.; Gejman, P.V.; Grallert, H.; Gronberg, H.; Gudnason, V.; Hall, A.S.; Hall, P.; Hartikainen, A.-L.; Hayward, C.; Heard-Costa, N.L.; Heath, A.C.; Hebebrand, J.; Homuth, G.; Hu, F.B.; Hunt, S.E.; Hypponen, E.; Iribarren, C.; Jacobs, K.B.; Jansson, J.-O.; Jula, A.; Kahonen, M.; Kathiresan, S.; Kee, F.; Khaw, K.-T.; Kivimaki, M.; Koenig, W.; Kraja, A.T.; Kumari, M.; Kuulasmaa, K.; Kuusisto, J.; Laitinen, J.H.; Lakka, T.A.; Langenberg, C.; Launer, L.J.; Lind, L.; Lindstrom, J.; Liu, J.; Liuzzi, A.; Lokki, M.-L.; Lorentzon, M.; Madden, P.A.; Magnusson, P.K.; Manunta, P.; Marek, D.; Marz, W.; Mateo Leach, I.; McKnight, B.; Medland, S.E.; Mihailov, E.; Milani, L.; Montgomery, G.W.; Mooser, V.; Muhleisen, T.W.; Munroe, P.B.; Musk, A.W.; Narisu, N.; Navis, G.; Nicholson, G.; Nohr, E.A.; Ong, K.K.; Oostra, B.A.; Palmer, C.N.A.; Palotie, A.; Peden, J.F.; Pedersen, N.; Peters, A.; Polasek, O.; Pouta, A.; Pramstaller, P.P.; Prokopenko, I.; Putter, C.; Radhakrishnan, A.; Raitakari, O.; Rendon, A.; Rivadeneira, F.; Rudan, I.; Saaristo, T.E.; Sambrook, J.G.; Sanders, A.R.; Sanna, S.; Saramies, J.; Schipf, S.; Schreiber, S.; Schunkert, H.; Shin, S.-Y.; Signorini, S.; Sinisalo, J.; Skrobek, B.; Soranzo, N.; Stancakova, A.; Stark, K.; Stephens, J.C.; Stirrups, K.; Stolk, R.P.; Stumvoll, M.; Swift, A.J.; Theodoraki, E.V.; Thorand, B.; Tregouet, D.-A.; Tremoli, E.; Van der Klauw, M.M.; van Meurs, J.B.J.; Vermeulen, S.H.; Viikari, J.; Virtamo, J.; Vitart, V.; Waeber, G.; Wang, Z.; Widen, E.; Wild, S.H.; Willemsen, G.; Winkelmann, B.R.; Witteman, J.C.M.; Wolffenbuttel, B.H.R.; Wong, A.; Wright, A.F.; Zillikens, M.C.; Amouyel, P.; Boehm, B.O.; Boerwinkle, E.; Boomsma, D.I.; Caulfield, M.J.; Chanock, S.J.; Cupples, L.A.; Cusi, D.; Dedoussis, G.V.; Erdmann, J.; Eriksson, J.G.; Franks, P.W.; Froguel, P.; Gieger, C.; Gyllensten, U.; Hamsten, A.; Harris, T.B.; Hengstenberg, C.; Hicks, A.A.; Hingorani, A.; Hinney, A.; Hofman, A.; Hovingh, K.G.; Hveem, K.; Illig, T.; Jarvelin, M.-R.; Jockel, K.-H.; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, S.M.; Kiemeney, L.A.; Kuh, D.; Laakso, M.; Lehtimaki, T.; Levinson, D.F.; Martin, N.G.; Metspalu, A.; Morris, A.D.; Nieminen, M.S.; Njolstad, I.; Ohlsson, C.; Oldehinkel, A.J.; Ouwehand, W.H.; Palmer, L.J.; Penninx, B.; Power, C.; Province, M.A.; Psaty, B.M.; Qi, L.; Rauramaa, R.; Ridker, P.M.; Ripatti, S.; Salomaa, V.; Samani, N.J.; Snieder, H.; Sorensen, T.I.A.; Spector, T.D.; Stefansson, K.; Tonjes, A.; Tuomilehto, J.; Uitterlinden, A.G.; Uusitupa, M.; van der Harst, P.; Vollenweider, P.; Wallaschofski, H.; Wareham, N.J.; Watkins, H.; Wichmann, H.-E.; Wilson, J.F.; Abecasis, G.R.; Assimes, T.L.; Barroso, I.; Boehnke, M.; Borecki, I.B.; Deloukas, P.; Fox, C.S.; Frayling, T.; Groop, L.C.; Haritunian, T.; Heid, I.M.; Hunter, D.; Kaplan, R.C.; Karpe, F.; Moffatt, M.F.; Mohlke, K.L.; O'Connell, J.R.; Pawitan, Y.; Schadt, E.E.; Schlessinger, D.; Steinthorsdottir, V.; Strachan, D.P.; Thorsteinsdottir, U.; van Duijn, C.M.; Visscher, P.M.; Di Blasio, A.M.; Hirschhorn, J.N.; Lindgren, C.M.; Morris, A.P.; Meyre, D.; Scherag, A.; McCarthy, M.I.; Speliotes, E.K.; North, K.E.; Loos, R.J.F.; Ingelsson, E. url  doi
  Title Genome-wide meta-analysis identifies 11 new loci for anthropometric traits and provides insights into genetic architecture Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Nature Genetics Abbreviated Journal Nat Genet  
  Volume 45 Issue 5 Pages 501-512  
  Keywords *Anthropometry; Body Height/*genetics; Body Mass Index; Case-Control Studies; European Continental Ancestry Group/genetics; *Genetic Predisposition to Disease; *Genome-Wide Association Study; Genotype; Humans; Meta-Analysis as Topic; Obesity/*genetics; Phenotype; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/*genetics; *Quantitative Trait Loci; Waist-Hip Ratio  
  Abstract Approaches exploiting trait distribution extremes may be used to identify loci associated with common traits, but it is unknown whether these loci are generalizable to the broader population. In a genome-wide search for loci associated with the upper versus the lower 5th percentiles of body mass index, height and waist-to-hip ratio, as well as clinical classes of obesity, including up to 263,407 individuals of European ancestry, we identified 4 new loci (IGFBP4, H6PD, RSRC1 and PPP2R2A) influencing height detected in the distribution tails and 7 new loci (HNF4G, RPTOR, GNAT2, MRPS33P4, ADCY9, HS6ST3 and ZZZ3) for clinical classes of obesity. Further, we find a large overlap in genetic structure and the distribution of variants between traits based on extremes and the general population and little etiological heterogeneity between obesity subgroups.  
  Address US Department of Health and Human Services, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, US National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1061-4036 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:23563607 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 1466  
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Author Bjorngaard, J.H.; Gunnell, D.; Elvestad, M.B.; Davey Smith, G.; Skorpen, F.; Krokan, H.; Vatten, L.; Romundstad, P. url  doi
  Title The causal role of smoking in anxiety and depression: a Mendelian randomization analysis of the HUNT study Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Psychological Medicine Abbreviated Journal Psychol Med  
  Volume 43 Issue 4 Pages 711-719  
  Keywords Adult; Alleles; Anxiety Disorders/*epidemiology/genetics; Body Mass Index; Causality; Chromosomes, Human, Pair 15/genetics; Depressive Disorder/*epidemiology/genetics; Female; Genetic Predisposition to Disease/epidemiology/genetics; Humans; Logistic Models; Male; *Mendelian Randomization Analysis; Middle Aged; Norway/epidemiology; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics; Pregnancy; Prevalence; Psychiatric Status Rating Scales; Receptors, Nicotinic/*genetics; Self Report; Smoking/*epidemiology/genetics/psychology; Young Adult  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking is strongly associated with mental illness but the causal direction of the association is uncertain. We investigated the causal relationship between smoking and symptoms of anxiety and depression in the Norwegian HUNT study using the rs1051730 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) variant located in the nicotine acetylcholine receptor gene cluster on chromosome 15 as an instrumental variable for smoking phenotypes. Among smokers, this SNP is robustly associated with smoking quantity and nicotine dependence. Method In total, 53 601 participants were genotyped for the rs1051730 SNP and provided information on smoking habits and symptoms of anxiety and depression using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). RESULTS: Self-reported smoking was positively associated with the prevalence of both anxiety and depression, and the measured polymorphism was positively associated with being a current smoker and the number of cigarettes smoked in current smokers. In the sample as a whole, risk of anxiety increased with each affected T allele [odds ratio (OR) 1.06, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02-1.09, p = 0.002] but there was no association with depression (p = 0.31). However, we found no clear association of the polymorphism with either anxiety (OR 1.03, 95% CI 0.97-1.09, p = 0.34) or depression (OR 1.02, 95% CI 0.95-1.09, p = 0.62) among smokers. CONCLUSIONS: As there was no association of the smoking-related rs1051730 SNP with anxiety and depression among smokers, the results suggest that smoking is not a cause of anxiety and depression.  
  Address Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway. johan.h.bjorngaard@ntnu.no  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0033-2917 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:22687325 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 1465  
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Author Bjornland, T.; Langaas, M.; Grill, V.; Mostad, I.L. url  doi
  Title Assessing gene-environment interaction effects of FTO, MC4R and lifestyle factors on obesity using an extreme phenotype sampling design: Results from the HUNT study Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication PloS one Abbreviated Journal PLoS One  
  Volume 12 Issue 4 Pages e0175071  
  Keywords Alpha-Ketoglutarate-Dependent Dioxygenase FTO/*genetics; Body Mass Index; *Gene-Environment Interaction; Humans; *Life Style; Obesity/*genetics; *Phenotype; Receptor, Melanocortin, Type 4/*genetics; Waist-Hip Ratio  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Our aim was to assess the influence of age, gender and lifestyle factors on the effect of the obesity-promoting alleles of FTO and MCR4. METHODS: The HUNT study comprises health information on the population of Nord-Trondelag county, Norway. Extreme phenotype participants (gender-wise lower and upper quartiles of waist-hip-ratio and BMI >/= 35 kg/m2) in the third survey, HUNT3 (2006-08), were genotyped for the single-nucleotide polymorphisms rs9939609 (FTO) and rs17782313 (MC4R); 25686 participants were successfully genotyped. Extreme sampling was chosen to increase power to detect genetic and gene-environment effects on waist-hip-ratio and BMI. Statistical inference was based on linear regression models and a missing-covariate likelihood approach for the extreme phenotype sampling design. Environmental factors were physical activity, diet (artificially sweetened beverages) and smoking. Longitudinal analysis was performed using material from HUNT2 (1995-97). RESULTS: Cross-sectional and longitudinal genetic effects indicated stronger genetic associations with obesity in young than in old, as well as differences between women and men. We observed larger genetic effects among physically inactive compared to active individuals. This interaction was age-dependent and seen mainly in 20-40 year olds. We observed a greater FTO effect among men with a regular intake of artificially sweetened beverages, compared to non-drinkers. Interaction analysis of smoking was mainly inconclusive. CONCLUSIONS: In a large all-adult and area-based population survey the effects of obesity-promoting minor-alleles of FTO and MCR4, and interactions with life style factors are age- and gender-related. These findings appear relevant when designing individualized treatment for and prophylaxis against obesity.  
  Address Department of Clinical Nutrition and Speech-Language Therapy, Clinic of Clinical Services, St. Olavs Hospital, Trondheim University Hospital, Trondheim, Norway  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1932-6203 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:28384342; PMCID:PMC5383228 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 1884  
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Author Brumpton, B.; Langhammer, A.; Romundstad, P.; Chen, Y.; Mai, X.-M. url  doi
  Title General and abdominal obesity and incident asthma in adults: the HUNT study Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication The European Respiratory Journal Abbreviated Journal Eur Respir J  
  Volume 41 Issue 2 Pages 323-329  
  Keywords Adult; Asthma/*complications/*epidemiology; Body Mass Index; Female; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; Models, Statistical; Norway; Obesity/*complications/*epidemiology; Odds Ratio; Prospective Studies; Risk Factors; Smoking; Waist Circumference; Young Adult  
  Abstract Measures of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference define general obesity and abdominal obesity respectively. While high BMI has been established as a risk factor for asthma in adults, waist circumference has seldom been investigated. To determine the association between BMI, waist circumference and incident asthma in adults, we conducted a prospective study (n=23,245) in a population living in Nord-Trondelag, Norway in 1995-2008. Baseline BMI and waist circumference were measured and categorised as general obesity (BMI >/=30.0 kg.m(2)) and abdominal obesity (waist circumference >/=88 cm in females and >/=102 cm in males). Incident asthma was self-reported new-onset cases during an 11-yr follow-up period. Odds ratios for asthma associated with obesity were calculated using multivariable logistic regression. General obesity was a risk factor for asthma in females (OR 1.96, 95% CI 1.52-2.52) and males (OR 1.84, 95% CI 1.30-2.59). In females, after additional adjustment for BMI, abdominal obesity remained a risk factor for asthma development (OR 1.46, 95% CI 1.04-2.05). Abdominal obesity seems to increase the risk of incident asthma in females in addition to BMI, indicating that using both measures of BMI and waist circumference in females may be a superior clinical assessment for asthma risk than any measure alone.  
  Address Dept. of Public Health and General Practice, Faculty of Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway. ben.brumpton@ntnu.no  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0903-1936 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:22653771 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 1461  
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Author Carslake, D.; Davey Smith, G.; Gunnell, D.; Davies, N.; Nilsen, T.I.L.; Romundstad, P. url  doi
  Title Confounding by ill health in the observed association between BMI and mortality: evidence from the HUNT Study using offspring BMI as an instrument Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication International Journal of Epidemiology Abbreviated Journal Int J Epidemiol  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords Body mass index; cohort study; confounding; instrumental variables; mortality; reverse causation  
  Abstract Background: The observational association between mortality and body mass index (BMI) is U-shaped, leading to highly publicized suggestions that moderate overweight is beneficial to health. However, it is unclear whether elevated mortality is caused by low BMI or if the association is confounded, for example by concurrent ill health. Methods: Using HUNT, a Norwegian prospective study, 32 452 mother-offspring and 27 747 father-offspring pairs were followed up to 2009. Conventional hazard ratios for parental mortality per standard deviation of BMI were estimated using Cox regression adjusted for behavioural and socioeconomic factors. To estimate hazard ratios with reduced susceptibility to confounding, particularly from concurrent ill health, the BMI of parents' offspring was used as an instrumental variable for parents' own BMI. The shape of mortality-BMI associations was assessed using cubic splines. Results: There were 18 365 parental deaths during follow-up. Conventional associations of mortality from all-causes, cardiovascular disease and cancer with parents' own BMI were substantially nonlinear, with elevated mortality at both extremes and minima at 21-25 kg m-2. Equivalent associations with offspring BMI were positive and there was no evidence of elevated parental mortality at low offspring BMI. The linear instrumental variable hazard ratio for all-cause mortality per standard deviation increase in BMI was 1.18 (95% confidence interval: 1.10, 1.26), compared with 1.05 (1.03, 1.06) in the conventional analysis. Conclusions: Elevated mortality rates at high BMI appear causal, whereas excess mortality at low BMI is likely exaggerated by confounding by factors including concurrent ill health. Conventional studies probably underestimate the adverse population health consequences of overweight.  
  Address Department of Public Health and General Practice, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0300-5771 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:29206928 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 1896  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Chau, J.Y.; Grunseit, A.; Midthjell, K.; Holmen, J.; Holmen, T.L.; Bauman, A.E.; van der Ploeg, H.P. url  doi
  Title Cross-sectional associations of total sitting and leisure screen time with cardiometabolic risk in adults. Results from the HUNT Study, Norway Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport / Sports Medicine Australia Abbreviated Journal J Sci Med Sport  
  Volume 17 Issue 1 Pages 78-84  
  Keywords BMI; CMD; Cardiovascular diseases; Epidemiology; GGT; HDL; HUNT; Nord-Trøndelag Health Study, Norway (HelseUndersøkelsen i Nord-Trøndelag); Physical activity; Sedentary lifestyle; WC; body mass index; cardiometabolic disease; gamma glutamyltransferase; high density lipoprotein; waist circumference  
  Abstract OBJECTIVES: To examine associations of total sitting time, TV-viewing and leisure-time computer use with cardiometabolic risk biomarkers in adults. DESIGN: Population based cross-sectional study. METHODS: Waist circumference, BMI, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, blood pressure, non-fasting glucose, gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT) and triglycerides were measured in 48,882 adults aged 20 years or older from the Nord-Trondelag Health Study 2006-2008 (HUNT3). Adjusted multiple regression models were used to test for associations between these biomarkers and self-reported total sitting time, TV-viewing and leisure-time computer use in the whole sample and by cardiometabolic disease status sub-groups. RESULTS: In the whole sample, reporting total sitting time >/=10 h/day was associated with poorer BMI, waist circumference, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, diastolic blood pressure, systolic blood pressure, non-fasting glucose, GGT and triglyceride levels compared to those reporting total sitting time <4h/day (all p<0.05). TV-viewing >/=4 h/day was associated with poorer BMI, waist circumference, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, systolic blood pressure, GGT and triglycerides compared to TV-viewing <1h/day (all p<0.05). Leisure-time computer use >/=1 h/day was associated with poorer BMI, total cholesterol, diastolic blood pressure, GGT and triglycerides compared with those reporting no leisure-time computing. Sub-group analyses by cardiometabolic disease status showed similar patterns in participants free of cardiometabolic disease, while similar albeit non-significant patterns were observed in those with cardiometabolic disease. CONCLUSIONS: Total sitting time, TV-viewing and leisure-time computer use are associated with poorer cardiometabolic risk profiles in adults. Reducing sedentary behaviour throughout the day and limiting TV-viewing and leisure-time computer use may have health benefits.  
  Address Prevention Research Collaboration, Sydney School of Public Health, University of Sydney, Australia; Department of Public and Occupational Health, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1878-1861 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:23619159 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 1496  
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Author Cuypers, K.; De Ridder, K.; Kvaloy, K.; Knudtsen, M.S.; Krokstad, S.; Holmen, J.; Holmen, T.L. url  doi
  Title Leisure time activities in adolescence in the presence of susceptibility genes for obesity: risk or resilience against overweight in adulthood? The HUNT study Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication BMC Public Health Abbreviated Journal BMC Public Health  
  Volume 12 Issue Pages 820  
  Keywords Adolescent; Body Mass Index; Female; Genetic Predisposition to Disease/*genetics; Genotype; Humans; *Leisure Activities; Male; Norway; Obesity/*genetics/*prevention & control; Overweight/genetics/prevention & control; Population Surveillance; Questionnaires; Waist Circumference/physiology; Young Adult  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Environment, health behavior, and genetic background are important in the development of obesity. Adolescents spend substantial part of daily leisure time on cultural and social activities, but knowledge about the effects of participation in such activities on weight is limited. METHODS: A number of 1450 adolescents from the Norwegian HUNT study (1995-97) were followed-up in 2006-08 as young adults. Phenotypic data on lifestyle and anthropometric measures were assessed using questionnaires and standardized clinical examinations. Genotypic information on 12 established obesity-susceptibility loci were available for analyses. Generalized estimating equations were used to examine the associations between cultural and social activities in adolescence and adiposity measures in young adulthood. In addition, interaction effects of a genetic predisposition score by leisure time activities were tested. RESULTS: In girls, participation in cultural activities was negatively associated with waist circumference (WC) (B = -0.04, 95%CI: -0.08 to -0.00) and with waist-hip ratio (WHR) (B = -0.058, 95%CI: -0.11 to -0.01). However, participation in social activities was positively associated with WC (B = 0.040, CI: 0.00 to 0.08) in girls and with BMI (B = 0.027, CI: 0.00 to 0.05) in boys. The effect of the obesity-susceptibility genetic variants on anthropometric measures was lower in adolescents with high participation in cultural activities compared to adolescents with low participation. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that the effects of cultural activities on body fat are different from the effects of participation in social activities. The protective influence of cultural activities in female adolescents against overweight in adulthood and their moderating effect on obesity-susceptibility genes suggest that even cultural activities may be useful in public health strategies against obesity.  
  Address HUNT Research Center, Department of Public Health and General Practice, Faculty of Medicine, Norwegian, University of Science and Technology, Forskningsveien 2, 7600, Levanger, Norway. koenraad.cuypers@ntnu.no  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1471-2458 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:22998931; PMC3491037 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 1511  
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Author Egan, K.B.; Ettinger, A.S.; DeWan, A.T.; Holford, T.R.; Holmen, T.L.; Bracken, M.B. url  doi
  Title General, but not abdominal, overweight increases odds of asthma among Norwegian adolescents: the Young-HUNT study Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Acta Paediatrica (Oslo, Norway : 1992) Abbreviated Journal Acta Paediatr  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords Young-HUNT; HUNT2; Adolescents; Asthma; Body mass index; Obesity; Overweight; Waist circumference  
  Abstract AIM: The aim of this analysis was to examine the association between asthma and general and abdominal weight status, defined by age- and sex-specific cut-offs for body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) in adolescents. METHODS: Participants aged 12-19 years in the Young-HUNT (YH) Study (YH1 1995-1997: n = 8222; YH3 2006-2008: n = 7403) completed self-administered questionnaires in school as part of a series of cross-sectional, population-based studies conducted in Nord-Trondelag, Norway. Weight, height and WC were measured. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) for asthma, defined by self-reported physician diagnosis, were calculated. Potential effect modifiers evaluated included sex and pubertal development status (PDS). RESULTS: Asthma was reported by 11.8% of the adolescents in YH1 and 17.0% in YH3. Asthma odds significantly increased for adolescents with general (OR = 1.33; 95%CI: 1.13, 1.56), but not abdominal, overweight and increased for adolescents with general (OR = 1.34; 95%CI: 1.02, 1.75) or abdominal obesity (OR = 1.36; 95%CI: 1.16, 1.60). Underweight had no association with asthma regardless of weight assessment type, and PDS did not meaningfully influence the associations between asthma and weight. CONCLUSION: Overweight and obesity both increased the odds of asthma in 12-19 year-old Norwegians. WC did not add further information to that already provided by BMI to improve our understanding of the association between asthma and weight.  
  Address Department of Chronic Disease Epidemiology, Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, CT, USA; Yale Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, New Haven, CT, USA; Center for Perinatal, Pediatric and Environmental Epidemiology, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0803-5253 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:25131148 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 1639  
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Author Egan, K.B.; Ettinger, A.S.; DeWan, A.T.; Holford, T.R.; Holmen, T.L.; Bracken, M.B. url  doi
  Title Longitudinal associations between asthma and general and abdominal weight status among Norwegian adolescents and young adults: the HUNT Study Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Pediatr Obes Abbreviated Journal Pediatric obesity  
  Volume 10 Issue 5 Pages 345-352  
  Keywords Adiposity; Adolescent; Adult; Asthma/epidemiology/etiology/*physiopathology; Body Mass Index; Female; Follow-Up Studies; Humans; Longitudinal Studies; Male; Norway/epidemiology; Obesity, Abdominal/complications/epidemiology/*physiopathology; Odds Ratio; Overweight; Waist Circumference; Young Adult  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: In adolescents the temporal directionality to the asthma and adiposity association remains unclear. Asthma may be a consequence of obesity; however, asthma may increase adiposity. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to assess the associations between (i) baseline weight status and subsequent asthma and (ii) baseline asthma and subsequent weight status after 4 and 11 years of follow-up (N = 1543 and N = 1596, respectively) using data from three, sequentially enrolled population-based surveys of Norwegians aged 12-30 years from 1995 to 2008. METHODS: Weight status was defined as general (body mass index) or abdominal (waist circumference) underweight, normal weight, overweight or obesity. Self-report physician-diagnosed asthma defined asthma status. RESULTS: Over the longitudinal 11-year follow-up, baseline generally overweight or abdominally obese adolescents had increased risk of asthma. Likewise, baseline asthmatics had increased risk of general overweight or abdominal obesity. After sex stratification, these associations were stronger in males. Generally (odds ratio [OR] 1.90; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.32, 2.73) or abdominally (OR 1.66; 95% CI 1.13, 2.44) overweight males were at increased risk of asthma. Baseline asthmatic males were also at increased risk of general (OR 2.14; 95% CI 1.54, 2.98) and abdominal (OR 1.77; 95% CI 1.27, 2.47) overweight. CONCLUSIONS: Among Norwegian adolescents, a bidirectional association of asthma and adiposity was observed in males. Each baseline condition increased the risk of the other condition over time. No association was observed in females.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Department of Chronic Disease Epidemiology, Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, CT, USA.Center Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
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  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Egan, K BEttinger, A SDeWan, A THolford, T RHolmen, T LBracken, M BengResearch Support, Non-U.S. Gov'tEngland2014/11/19 06:00Pediatr Obes. 2015 Oct;10(5):345-52. doi: 10.1111/ijpo.271. Epub 2014 Nov 18. Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Egan2015 Serial 1803  
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Author Engdahl, B.; Aarhus, L.; Lie, A.; Tambs, K. url  doi
  Title Cardiovascular risk factors and hearing loss: The HUNT study Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Int J Audiol Abbreviated Journal International journal of audiology  
  Volume 54 Issue 12 Pages 958-966  
  Keywords Epidemiology; alcohol; blood lipids; blood pressure; body mass index; diabetes; hearing loss; physical activity; smoking  
  Abstract OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the present paper was to examine the association between prospectively and cross-sectionally assessed cardiovascular risk factors and hearing loss. DESIGN: Hearing was assessed by pure-tone average thresholds at low (0.25-0.5 kHz), middle (1-2 kHz), and high (3-8 kHz) frequencies. Self-reported or measured cardiovascular risk factors were assessed both 11 years before and simultaneously with the audiometric assessment. Cardiovascular risk factors were smoking, alcohol use, physical inactivity, waist circumference, body mass index, resting heart rate, blood pressure, triglycerides, total serum cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and diabetes. STUDY SAMPLE: A population-based cohort of 31 547 subjects. RESULTS: After adjustment for age, sex, level of education, income, recurrent ear infections, and noise exposure, risk factors associated with poorer hearing sensitivity were smoking, diabetes, physical inactivity, resting heart rate, and waist circumference. Smoking was only associated with hearing loss at high frequencies. The effects were very small, in combination explaining only 0.2-0.4% of the variance in addition to the component explained by age and the other cofactors. CONCLUSION: This cohort study indicates that, although many cardiovascular risk factors are associated with hearing loss, the effects are small and of doubtful clinical relevance.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication a Division of Mental Health , Norwegian Institute of Public Health , Nydalen , Oslo , Norway.b Natio Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes 1708-8186Engdahl, BoAarhus, LisaLie, ArveTambs, KristianN01 DC62104/DC/NIDCD NIH HHS/United StatesJournal ArticleResearch Support, N.I.H., ExtramuralEnglandInt J Audiol. 2015;54(12):958-66. doi: 10.3109/14992027.2015.1090631. Epub 2015 Oct 8. Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Engdahl2015 Serial 1805  
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Author Enmarker, I.; Hellzen, O.; Ekker, K.; Berg, A.-G. url  doi
  Title Health in older cat and dog owners: The Nord-Trondelag Health Study (HUNT)-3 study Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Scandinavian Journal of Public Health Abbreviated Journal Scand J Public Health  
  Volume 40 Issue 8 Pages 718-724  
  Keywords Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Animals; Blood Pressure; Body Mass Index; *Cats; Cross-Sectional Studies; Diagnostic Self Evaluation; *Dogs; Exercise; Female; *Health Status; Humans; Male; Marital Status/statistics & numerical data; Norway; Ownership/*statistics & numerical data; *Pets  
  Abstract AIM: The main objective was to compare older male and female cat, dog, and non-owners with regard to demographic and health-related characteristics. METHOD: Data in the present cross-sectional population study were drawn from HUNT-3 in Norway. A total of 12,297 persons (5631 men; 6666 women) between the ages of 65 and 101 years were included, of whom 2358 were pet owners. RESULTS: The main finding was that owning a dog demonstrated several health-related characteristics to a higher positive degree than both non-pet and cat ownership among the participants. Cat owners showed higher body mass index values and higher systolic blood pressure, and reported worse general health status. They also exercised to a lower degree than the others. CONCLUSIONS: As the result implies that older cat owners are negatively outstanding in many aspects of health compared with the dog owners, in the future, more focus must be put on the worse health of those. Further, there were more married male than female cat and dog owners. This probably depends on traditional cultural thinking; the man is the owner of the pet even if the woman lives with and cares about it. It is important to point out that different groups in the population might select different pets. Consequently, the findings showing a correlation between pet ownership and health may be owing to unrelated confounding factors.  
  Address Faculty of Health Sciences, Nord-Trondelag University College, Namsos, Norway. ingela.enmarker@hint.no  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1403-4948 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:23221913 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 1523  
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Author Graff, M.; Scott, R.A.; Justice, A.E.; Young, K.L.; Feitosa, M.F.; Barata, L.; Winkler, T.W.; Chu, A.Y.; Mahajan, A.; Hadley, D.; Xue, L.; Workalemahu, T.; Heard-Costa, N.L.; den Hoed, M.; Ahluwalia, T.S.; Qi, Q.; Ngwa, J.S.; Renstrom, F.; Quaye, L.; Eicher, J.D.; Hayes, J.E.; Cornelis, M.; Kutalik, Z.; Lim, E.; Luan, J.'an; Huffman, J.E.; Zhang, W.; Zhao, W.; Griffin, P.J.; Haller, T.; Ahmad, S.; Marques-Vidal, P.M.; Bien, S.; Yengo, L.; Teumer, A.; Smith, A.V.; Kumari, M.; Harder, M.N.; Justesen, J.M.; Kleber, M.E.; Hollensted, M.; Lohman, K.; Rivera, N.V.; Whitfield, J.B.; Zhao, J.H.; Stringham, H.M.; Lyytikainen, L.-P.; Huppertz, C.; Willemsen, G.; Peyrot, W.J.; Wu, Y.; Kristiansson, K.; Demirkan, A.; Fornage, M.; Hassinen, M.; Bielak, L.F.; Cadby, G.; Tanaka, T.; Magi, R.; van der Most, P.J.; Jackson, A.U.; Bragg-Gresham, J.L.; Vitart, V.; Marten, J.; Navarro, P.; Bellis, C.; Pasko, D.; Johansson, A.; Snitker, S.; Cheng, Y.-C.; Eriksson, J.; Lim, U.; Aadahl, M.; Adair, L.S.; Amin, N.; Balkau, B.; Auvinen, J.; Beilby, J.; Bergman, R.N.; Bergmann, S.; Bertoni, A.G.; Blangero, J.; Bonnefond, A.; Bonnycastle, L.L.; Borja, J.B.; Brage, S.; Busonero, F.; Buyske, S.; Campbell, H.; Chines, P.S.; Collins, F.S.; Corre, T.; Smith, G.D.; Delgado, G.E.; Dueker, N.; Dorr, M.; Ebeling, T.; Eiriksdottir, G.; Esko, T.; Faul, J.D.; Fu, M.; Faerch, K.; Gieger, C.; Glaser, S.; Gong, J.; Gordon-Larsen, P.; Grallert, H.; Grammer, T.B.; Grarup, N.; van Grootheest, G.; Harald, K.; Hastie, N.D.; Havulinna, A.S.; Hernandez, D.; Hindorff, L.; Hocking, L.J.; Holmens, O.L.; Holzapfel, C.; Hottenga, J.J.; Huang, J.; Huang, T.; Hui, J.; Huth, C.; Hutri-Kahonen, N.; James, A.L.; Jansson, J.-O.; Jhun, M.A.; Juonala, M.; Kinnunen, L.; Koistinen, H.A.; Kolcic, I.; Komulainen, P.; Kuusisto, J.; Kvaloy, K.; Kahonen, M.; Lakka, T.A.; Launer, L.J.; Lehne, B.; Lindgren, C.M.; Lorentzon, M.; Luben, R.; Marre, M.; Milaneschi, Y.; Monda, K.L.; Montgomery, G.W.; De Moor, M.H.M.; Mulas, A.; Muller-Nurasyid, M.; Musk, A.W.; Mannikko, R.; Mannisto, S.; Narisu, N.; Nauck, M.; Nettleton, J.A.; Nolte, I.M.; Oldehinkel, A.J.; Olden, M.; Ong, K.K.; Padmanabhan, S.; Paternoster, L.; Perez, J.; Perola, M.; Peters, A.; Peters, U.; Peyser, P.A.; Prokopenko, I.; Puolijoki, H.; Raitakari, O.T.; Rankinen, T.; Rasmussen-Torvik, L.J.; Rawal, R.; Ridker, P.M.; Rose, L.M.; Rudan, I.; Sarti, C.; Sarzynski, M.A.; Savonen, K.; Scott, W.R.; Sanna, S.; Shuldiner, A.R.; Sidney, S.; Silbernagel, G.; Smith, B.H.; Smith, J.A.; Snieder, H.; Stancakova, A.; Sternfeld, B.; Swift, A.J.; Tammelin, T.; Tan, S.-T.; Thorand, B.; Thuillier, D.; Vandenput, L.; Vestergaard, H.; van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, J.V.; Vohl, M.-C.; Volker, U.; Waeber, G.; Walker, M.; Wild, S.; Wong, A.; Wright, A.F.; Zillikens, M.C.; Zubair, N.; Haiman, C.A.; Lemarchand, L.; Gyllensten, U.; Ohlsson, C.; Hofman, A.; Rivadeneira, F.; Uitterlinden, A.G.; Perusse, L.; Wilson, J.F.; Hayward, C.; Polasek, O.; Cucca, F.; Hveem, K.; Hartman, C.A.; Tonjes, A.; Bandinelli, S.; Palmer, L.J.; Kardia, S.L.R.; Rauramaa, R.; Sorensen, T.I.A.; Tuomilehto, J.; Salomaa, V.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; de Geus, E.J.C.; Boomsma, D.I.; Lehtimaki, T.; Mangino, M.; Laakso, M.; Bouchard, C.; Martin, N.G.; Kuh, D.; Liu, Y.; Linneberg, A.; Marz, W.; Strauch, K.; Kivimaki, M.; Harris, T.B.; Gudnason, V.; Volzke, H.; Qi, L.; Jarvelin, M.-R.; Chambers, J.C.; Kooner, J.S.; Froguel, P.; Kooperberg, C.; Vollenweider, P.; Hallmans, G.; Hansen, T.; Pedersen, O.; Metspalu, A.; Wareham, N.J.; Langenberg, C.; Weir, D.R.; Porteous, D.J.; Boerwinkle, E.; Chasman, D.I.; Abecasis, G.R.; Barroso, I.; McCarthy, M.I.; Frayling, T.M.; O'Connell, J.R.; van Duijn, C.M.; Boehnke, M.; Heid, I.M.; Mohlke, K.L.; Strachan, D.P.; Fox, C.S.; Liu, C.-T.; Hirschhorn, J.N.; Klein, R.J.; Johnson, A.D.; Borecki, I.B.; Franks, P.W.; North, K.E.; Cupples, L.A.; Loos, R.J.F.; Kilpelainen, T.O. url  doi
  Title Genome-wide physical activity interactions in adiposity – A meta-analysis of 200,452 adults Type Meta-Analysis
  Year 2017 Publication PLoS Genetics Abbreviated Journal PLoS Genet  
  Volume 13 Issue 4 Pages e1006528  
  Keywords Adiposity/*genetics/physiology; Alpha-Ketoglutarate-Dependent Dioxygenase FTO/*genetics; Body Mass Index; Epigenomics; *Exercise; Female; Genetic Predisposition to Disease; Genome-Wide Association Study; Genotype; Humans; Male; Obesity/*genetics/physiopathology; Waist Circumference; Waist-Hip Ratio  
  Abstract Physical activity (PA) may modify the genetic effects that give rise to increased risk of obesity. To identify adiposity loci whose effects are modified by PA, we performed genome-wide interaction meta-analyses of BMI and BMI-adjusted waist circumference and waist-hip ratio from up to 200,452 adults of European (n = 180,423) or other ancestry (n = 20,029). We standardized PA by categorizing it into a dichotomous variable where, on average, 23% of participants were categorized as inactive and 77% as physically active. While we replicate the interaction with PA for the strongest known obesity-risk locus in the FTO gene, of which the effect is attenuated by ~30% in physically active individuals compared to inactive individuals, we do not identify additional loci that are sensitive to PA. In additional genome-wide meta-analyses adjusting for PA and interaction with PA, we identify 11 novel adiposity loci, suggesting that accounting for PA or other environmental factors that contribute to variation in adiposity may facilitate gene discovery.  
  Address The Department of Preventive Medicine, The Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York, United States of America  
  Corporate Author PAGE Consortium Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1553-7390 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:28448500; PMCID:PMC5407576 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 1909  
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Author Gudmundsdottir, S.L.; Flanders, W.D.; Augestad, L.B. url  doi
  Title Physical activity and cardiovascular risk factors at menopause: the Nord-Trondelag health study Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Climacteric : the Journal of the International Menopause Society Abbreviated Journal Climacteric  
  Volume 16 Issue 4 Pages 438-446  
  Keywords Adult; Blood Glucose/analysis; Blood Pressure; Body Mass Index; Body Weight; Cardiovascular Diseases/*epidemiology; Cholesterol, HDL/blood; *Exercise; Female; Follow-Up Studies; Health Surveys; Humans; *Menopause; Metabolic Diseases/epidemiology; Middle Aged; Norway/epidemiology; Premenopause/physiology; Questionnaires; Risk Factors; Triglycerides/blood; Waist-Hip Ratio  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Lowered physical activity levels may partially explain changes in metabolic risk factors in women after menopause. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the association between physical activity and metabolic risk factors at baseline and after 11 years, as well as the change in that association over time in women who were premenopausal and >/= 40 years at baseline. METHODS: Subjects in a Norwegian population-based health survey answered questionnaires and had body and serum measurements during 1995-1997 (HUNT 2) and in a follow-up study during 2006-2008 (HUNT 3). Repeated-measures analyses were used to estimate the association between physical activity and metabolic factors, adjusting for age, smoking status, education, alcohol intake, and parity. Adjustment for hormonal treatment and medication was made, as appropriate. RESULTS: In women remaining premenopausal, a higher physical activity score in HUNT 3 was associated with lower weight (p < 0.01) and waist-hip ratio (p < 0.01) and higher high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol in HUNT 3 (p < 0.01). In women that were postmenopausal by the time of follow-up, a higher physical activity score in HUNT 3 was associated with lower weight (p < 0.01), waist-hip ratio (p < 0.01), triglycerides (p < 0.01), and higher total cholesterol (p < 0.05), HDL cholesterol (p < 0.01), and diastolic blood pressure (p < 0.05) in HUNT 3. The association of total physical activity score with weight and waist-hip ratio was stronger in HUNT 3 than in HUNT 2 (p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Increased physical activity may reduce the risk of adverse outcomes and use of pharmacological management in women of menopausal age.  
  Address Department of Human Movement Science, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1369-7137 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:23347190 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 1450  
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Author Hatlen, P.; Langhammer, A.; Forsmo, S.; Carlsen, S.M.; Amundsen, T. url  doi
  Title Bone mass density, fracture history, self-reported osteoporosis as proxy variables for estrogen and the risk of non-small-cell lung cancer--a population based cohort study, the HUNT study: are proxy variables friends or faults? Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Lung Cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands) Abbreviated Journal Lung Cancer  
  Volume 81 Issue 1 Pages 39-46  
  Keywords Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Body Mass Index; *Bone Density; Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/*epidemiology/etiology; Cohort Studies; Estrogens/metabolism; Female; Fractures, Bone/complications/*epidemiology; Humans; Logistic Models; Lung Diseases/etiology; Lung Neoplasms/*epidemiology/etiology; Male; Norway/epidemiology; Odds Ratio; Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal/complications/*epidemiology; Risk Factors; Self Report  
  Abstract Lung cancer has the highest mortality of all cancers. Patients with early stage disease have the best cure rates and that emphasizes the importance of early detection. About half of all non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) are estrogen receptor positive. The impact of estrogen and its receptors for NSCLC carcinogenesis has been studied but is still unclear. Low estrogen levels are associated with osteoporosis. We hypothesize that low bone mineral density (BMD), a positive history of fracture or self-reported osteoporosis, used as a proxy variable for life time estrogen exposure, are associated with a low incidence of NSCLC. We analyzed data from a cohort study, the Nord-Trondelag Health Study 2 (1995-1997) linked to the Norwegian Cancer Registry. Using the logistic regression model we calculated the odds ratio (OR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI) for the risk of NSCLC for the three proxy variables, stratified by sex. Participants older than 50 years of age, having measured bone density (N = 18,156), having answered the questions on self-reported fracture (N = 37,883) and osteoporosis (N = 25,701) and known body mass index (BMI) (N = 29,291), were evaluated for inclusion. In 6996 participants all these information was available in addition to tobacco use, and in women also hormonal replacement therapy (HRT). Lung function (FEV1 percent of predicted) was included in a sensitivity analysis. We identified 132 (1.9%) cases of NSCLC, 59 (1.2%) and 73 (3.3%) cases in women and men, respectively. Low BMD was associated with a higher risk of NSCLC, OR: 2.38, 95% CI: 1.09-5.18 and OR: 2.67, 95% CI: 1.39-5.16 in women and men, respectively. No association was found between the two other proxy variables and the risk of NSCLC. Inclusion of lung function in the model did not change the results. Contrary to our hypothesis, women and men with low BMD had a higher risk for NSCLC. In addition the study demonstrates that the risk depends on which proxy variable was chosen, and we may ask: are proxy variables reliable?  
  Address Department of Thoracic Medicine, St. Olavs Hospital HF, 7006 Trondheim, Norway. Peter.Hatlen@ntnu.no  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0169-5002 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:23618654 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 1446  
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Author Heuch, I.; Heuch, I.; Hagen, K.; Zwart, J.-A. url  doi
  Title Body mass index as a risk factor for developing chronic low back pain: a follow-up in the Nord-Trondelag Health Study Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Spine Abbreviated Journal Spine (Phila Pa 1976)  
  Volume 38 Issue 2 Pages 133-139  
  Keywords Adult; Aged; *Body Mass Index; Chronic Pain; Cohort Studies; Comorbidity; Female; Follow-Up Studies; Humans; Low Back Pain/*epidemiology/physiopathology; Male; Middle Aged; Norway/epidemiology; Obesity/*epidemiology/physiopathology; Population Surveillance; Prospective Studies; Risk Factors  
  Abstract STUDY DESIGN: A population-based, prospective cohort study. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether overweight, obesity, or more generally an elevated body mass index (BMI) increase the probability of experiencing chronic low back pain (LBP) after an 11-year period, both among participants with and without LBP at baseline. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Chronic LBP is a common disabling disorder in modern society. Cross-sectional studies suggest an association between an elevated BMI and LBP, but it is not clear whether this is a causal relationship. METHODS: Data were obtained from the community-based HUNT 2 (1995-1997) and HUNT 3 (2006-2008) studies of an entire Norwegian county. Participants were 8733 men and 10,149 women, aged 30 to 69 years, who did not have chronic LBP at baseline, and 2669 men and 3899 women with LBP at baseline. After 11 years, both groups indicated whether they currently had chronic LBP, defined as pain persisting for at least 3 months continuously during the last year. RESULTS: A significant positive association was found between BMI and risk of LBP among persons without LBP at baseline. The odds ratio for BMI 30 or more versus BMI less than 25 was 1.34 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.08-1.67) for men and 1.22 (95% CI, 1.03-1.46) for women, in analyses adjusted for age, education, work status, physical activity at work and in leisure time, smoking, blood pressure, and serum lipid levels. A significant positive association was also established between BMI and recurrence of LBP among women. LBP status at baseline had negligible influence on subsequent change in BMI. CONCLUSION: High values of BMI may predispose to chronic LBP 11 years later, both in individuals with and without LBP. The association between BMI and LBP is not explained by an effect of LBP on later change in BMI.  
  Address Department of Neurology, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway. ingrid.heuch@uus.no  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0362-2436 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:22718225 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 1443  
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Author Hjerkind, K.V.; Stenehjem, J.S.; Nilsen, T.I.L. url  doi
  Title Adiposity, physical activity and risk of diabetes mellitus: prospective data from the population-based HUNT study, Norway Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication BMJ Open Abbreviated Journal BMJ Open  
  Volume 7 Issue 1 Pages e013142  
  Keywords *Adiposity; Adult; Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Body Mass Index; Comorbidity; Diabetes Mellitus/*epidemiology; *Exercise; Female; Humans; Longitudinal Studies; Male; Middle Aged; Norway/epidemiology; Odds Ratio; Overweight/*epidemiology; Prospective Studies; Risk Factors; Young Adult; *Epidemiology; *Public Health  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Physical activity may counteract the adverse effects of adiposity on cardiovascular mortality; however, the evidence of a similar effect on diabetes is sparse. This study examines whether physical activity may compensate for the adverse effect of adiposity on diabetes risk. METHODS: The study population consisted of 38 231 individuals aged 20 years or more who participated in two consecutive waves of the prospective longitudinal Nord-Trondelag Health Study in Norway: in 1984-1986 and in 1995-1997. A Poisson regression model with SEs derived from robust variance was used to estimate adjusted risk ratios of diabetes between categories of body mass index and physical activity. RESULTS: Risk of diabetes increased both with increasing body mass (Ptrend <0.001) and with decreasing physical activity level (Ptrend <0.001 in men and 0.01 in women). Combined analyses showed that men who were both obese and had low activity levels had a risk ratio of 17 (95% CI 9.52 to 30) compared to men who were normal weight and highly active, whereas obese men who reported high activity had a risk ratio of 13 (95% CI 6.92 to 26). Corresponding analysis in obese women produced risk ratios of 15 (95% CI 9.18 to 25) and 13 (95% CI 7.42 to 21) among women reporting low and high activity levels, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that overweight and obesity are associated with a substantially increased risk of diabetes, particularly among those who also reported being physically inactive. High levels of physical activity were associated with a lower risk of diabetes within all categories of body mass index, but there was no clear evidence that being physically active could entirely compensate for the adverse effect of adiposity on diabetes risk.  
  Address Cancer Registry of Norway, Institute of Population-based Cancer Research, Oslo, Norway  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2044-6055 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:28093432; PMCID:PMC5253523 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 1929  
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Author Hjort, R.; Ahlqvist, E.; Carlsson, P.-O.; Grill, V.; Groop, L.; Martinell, M.; Rasouli, B.; Rosengren, A.; Tuomi, T.; Asvold, B.O.; Carlsson, S. url  doi
  Title Overweight, obesity and the risk of LADA: results from a Swedish case-control study and the Norwegian HUNT Study Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Diabetologia Abbreviated Journal Diabetologia  
  Volume 61 Issue 6 Pages 1333-1343  
  Keywords Adult; Aged; Autoantibodies/blood; Body Mass Index; Case-Control Studies; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/*epidemiology; Female; Humans; Insulin Resistance; Insulin-Secreting Cells/metabolism; Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults/*complications/*diagnosis/*epidemiology; Male; Middle Aged; Norway/epidemiology; Obesity/*complications/epidemiology; Odds Ratio; Overweight/*complications/epidemiology; Prospective Studies; Risk Factors; Sweden; Young Adult; *Andis; *ANDiU; *Body mass index; *Case-control study; *Estrid; *HUNT Study; *Lada; *Latent autoimmune diabetes in adults; *Prospective study; *Type 2 diabetes  
  Abstract AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Excessive weight is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes, but its role in the promotion of autoimmune diabetes is not clear. We investigated the risk of latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) in relation to overweight/obesity in two large population-based studies. METHODS: Analyses were based on incident cases of LADA (n = 425) and type 2 diabetes (n = 1420), and 1704 randomly selected control participants from a Swedish case-control study and prospective data from the Norwegian HUNT Study including 147 people with LADA and 1,012,957 person-years of follow-up (1984-2008). We present adjusted ORs and HRs with 95% CI. RESULTS: In the Swedish data, obesity was associated with an increased risk of LADA (OR 2.93, 95% CI 2.17, 3.97), which was even stronger for type 2 diabetes (OR 18.88, 95% CI 14.29, 24.94). The association was stronger in LADA with low GAD antibody (GADA; <median) (OR 4.25; 95% CI 2.76, 6.52) but present also in LADA with high GADA (OR 2.14; 95% CI 1.42, 3.24). In the Swedish data, obese vs normal weight LADA patients had lower GADA levels, better beta cell function, and were more likely to have low-risk HLA-genotypes. The combination of overweight and family history of diabetes (FHD) conferred an OR of 4.57 (95% CI 3.27, 6.39) for LADA and 24.51 (95% CI 17.82, 33.71) for type 2 diabetes. Prospective data from HUNT indicated even stronger associations; HR for LADA was 6.07 (95% CI 3.76, 9.78) for obesity and 7.45 (95% CI 4.02, 13.82) for overweight and FHD. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Overweight/obesity is associated with increased risk of LADA, particularly when in combination with FHD. These findings support the hypothesis that, even in the presence of autoimmunity, factors linked to insulin resistance, such as excessive weight, could promote onset of diabetes.  
  Address Unit of Epidemiology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, 171 77, Stockholm, Sweden  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0012-186X ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:29589073 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 2098  
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Author Kvaloy, K.; Holmen, J.; Hveem, K.; Holmen, T.L. url  doi
  Title Genetic Effects on Longitudinal Changes from Healthy to Adverse Weight and Metabolic Status – The HUNT Study Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication PLoS One Abbreviated Journal PloS one  
  Volume 10 Issue 10 Pages e0139632  
  Keywords HUNT2; HUNT3; Adolescent; Adult; Apolipoproteins A/genetics; Blood Glucose/analysis; Blood Pressure; Body Mass Index; Cholesterol, HDL/blood; Cross-Sectional Studies; Female; Humans; Longitudinal Studies; Male; Metabolic Syndrome X/blood/*etiology/genetics; Middle Aged; Overweight/blood/*complications/*genetics; *Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide; Proteins/genetics; Receptors, Dopamine D2/genetics; Triglycerides/blood; Weight Gain; Young Adult  
  Abstract INTRODUCTION: The complexity of obesity and onset and susceptibility of cardio-metabolic disorders are still poorly understood and is addressed here through studies of genetic influence on weight gain and increased metabolic risk longitudinally. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Twenty seven previously identified obesity, eating disorder or metabolic risk susceptibility SNPs were tested for association with weight or metabolically related traits longitudinally in 3999 adults participating both in the HUNT2 (1995-97) and HUNT3 (2006-08) surveys. Regression analyses were performed with changes from normal weight to overweight/obesity or from metabolically healthy to adverse developments with regards to blood pressure, glucose, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides or metabolic syndrome as outcomes. Additionally, a sub-sample of 1380 adolescents was included for testing association of nine SNPs with longitudinal weight gain into young adulthood. RESULTS: The most substantial effect on BMI-based weight gain from normal to overweight/obesity in adults was observed for the DRD2 variant (rs6277)(OR: 0.79, 95% CI: 0.69-0.90, P = 3.9x10-4, adj. P = 0.015). DRD2 was not associated with BMI on a cross-sectional level. In the adolescent sample, FTO (rs1121980) was associated with change to overweight at adulthood in the combined male-female sample (OR: 1.27, 95% CI: 1.09-1.49, P = 3.0x10-3, adj. P = 0.019) and in females (OR: 1.53, 95% CI: 1.23-1.91, P = 1.8x10-4, adj. P = 0.003). When testing for association to longitudinal adverse developments with regard to blood pressure, blood lipids and glucose, only rs964184 (ZNF259/APOA5) was significantly associated to unfavourable triglyceride changes (OR: 1.66, 95% CI: 1.36-2.03, P = 5.7x10-7, adj. P = 0.001). Pleiotropic effects on metabolic traits, however, were observed for several genetic loci cross-sectionally, ZNF259/APOA5, LPL and GRB14 being the most important. CONCLUSIONS: DRD2 exhibits effects on weight gain from normal weight to overweight/obesity in adults, while, FTO is associated to weight gain from adolescence to young adulthood. Unhealthy longitudinal triglyceride development is strongly affected by ZNF259/APOA. Our main finding, linking the DRD2 variant directly to the longitudinal weight gain observed, has not previously been identified. It suggests a genetic pre-disposition involving the dopaminergic signalling pathways known to play a role in food reward and satiety linked mechanisms.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication HUNT Research Center, Department of Public Health and General Practice, Faculty of Medicine, Norwegi Editor  
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  Notes Kvaloy, KirstiHolmen, JosteinHveem, KristianHolmen, Turid Lingaaseng2015/10/09 06:00PLoS One. 2015 Oct 7;10(10):e0139632. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0139632. eCollection 2015. Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Kvaloy2015 Serial 1833  
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Author Kvamme, J.-M.; Holmen, J.; Wilsgaard, T.; Florholmen, J.; Midthjell, K.; Jacobsen, B.K. url  doi
  Title Body mass index and mortality in elderly men and women: the Tromso and HUNT studies Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health Abbreviated Journal J Epidemiol Community Health  
  Volume 66 Issue 7 Pages 611-617  
  Keywords Aged; Aged, 80 and over; *Body Mass Index; Female; Humans; Male; Mortality/*trends; Norway/epidemiology; Proportional Hazards Models; Questionnaires; Registries  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: The impact of body mass index (BMI; kg/m(2)) and waist circumference (WC) on mortality in elderly individuals is controversial and previous research has largely focused on obesity. METHODS: With special attention to the lower BMI categories, associations between BMI and both total and cause-specific mortality were explored in 7604 men and 9107 women aged >/= 65 years who participated in the Tromso Study (1994-1995) or the North-Trondelag Health Study (1995-1997). A Cox proportional hazards model adjusted for age, marital status, education and smoking was used to estimate HRs for mortality in different BMI categories using the BMI range of 25-27.5 as a reference. The impact of each 2.5 kg/m(2) difference in BMI on mortality in individuals with BMI < 25.0 and BMI >/= 25.0 was also explored. Furthermore, the relations between WC and mortality were assessed. RESULTS: We identified 7474 deaths during a mean follow-up of 9.3 years. The lowest mortality was found in the BMI range 25-29.9 and 25-32.4 in men and women, respectively. Mortality was increased in all BMI categories below 25 and was moderately increased in obese individuals. U-shaped relationships were also found between WC and total mortality. About 40% of the excess mortality in the lower BMI range in men was explained by mortality from respiratory diseases. CONCLUSIONS: BMI below 25 in elderly men and women was associated with increased mortality. A modest increase in mortality was found with increasing BMI among obese men and women. Overweight individuals (BMI 25-29.9) had the lowest mortality.  
  Address Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Tromso, N-9037 Tromso, Norway. jan-magnus.kvamme@uit.no  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0143-005X ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:21321065; PMC3368492 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 1537  
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Author