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Author Bjorngaard, J.H.; Gunnell, D.; Elvestad, M.B.; Davey Smith, G.; Skorpen, F.; Krokan, H.; Vatten, L.; Romundstad, P. url  doi
  Title The causal role of smoking in anxiety and depression: a Mendelian randomization analysis of the HUNT study Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Psychological Medicine Abbreviated Journal Psychol Med  
  Volume 43 Issue 4 Pages 711-719  
  Keywords Adult; Alleles; Anxiety Disorders/*epidemiology/genetics; Body Mass Index; Causality; Chromosomes, Human, Pair 15/genetics; Depressive Disorder/*epidemiology/genetics; Female; Genetic Predisposition to Disease/epidemiology/genetics; Humans; Logistic Models; Male; *Mendelian Randomization Analysis; Middle Aged; Norway/epidemiology; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics; Pregnancy; Prevalence; Psychiatric Status Rating Scales; Receptors, Nicotinic/*genetics; Self Report; Smoking/*epidemiology/genetics/psychology; Young Adult  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking is strongly associated with mental illness but the causal direction of the association is uncertain. We investigated the causal relationship between smoking and symptoms of anxiety and depression in the Norwegian HUNT study using the rs1051730 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) variant located in the nicotine acetylcholine receptor gene cluster on chromosome 15 as an instrumental variable for smoking phenotypes. Among smokers, this SNP is robustly associated with smoking quantity and nicotine dependence. Method In total, 53 601 participants were genotyped for the rs1051730 SNP and provided information on smoking habits and symptoms of anxiety and depression using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). RESULTS: Self-reported smoking was positively associated with the prevalence of both anxiety and depression, and the measured polymorphism was positively associated with being a current smoker and the number of cigarettes smoked in current smokers. In the sample as a whole, risk of anxiety increased with each affected T allele [odds ratio (OR) 1.06, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02-1.09, p = 0.002] but there was no association with depression (p = 0.31). However, we found no clear association of the polymorphism with either anxiety (OR 1.03, 95% CI 0.97-1.09, p = 0.34) or depression (OR 1.02, 95% CI 0.95-1.09, p = 0.62) among smokers. CONCLUSIONS: As there was no association of the smoking-related rs1051730 SNP with anxiety and depression among smokers, the results suggest that smoking is not a cause of anxiety and depression.  
  Address Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway. johan.h.bjorngaard@ntnu.no  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0033-2917 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:22687325 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 1465  
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Author Grav, S.; Stordal, E.; Romild, U.K.; Hellzen, O. url  doi
  Title The relationship among neuroticism, extraversion, and depression in the HUNT Study: in relation to age and gender Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Issues in Mental Health Nursing Abbreviated Journal Issues Ment Health Nurs  
  Volume 33 Issue 11 Pages 777-785  
  Keywords Adult; Age Factors; Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Anxiety Disorders/*epidemiology/*nursing/psychology; Cross-Sectional Studies; Depressive Disorder/*epidemiology/*nursing/psychology; *Extraversion (Psychology); Female; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; Norway; Personality Inventory/statistics & numerical data; Psychometrics; Sex Factors; Statistics as Topic; Young Adult  
  Abstract The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between personality and depression in a general population in relation to gender and age. The Nord-Trondelag Health Study (2006-2008), a large cross-sectional survey, was used. The sample consists of 35,832 men (16,104) and women (19,728) aged 20-89 years, living in the Nord-Trondelag County of Norway, with valid ratings on the depression subscale of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ). This study demonstrates a relationship between depression and both neuroticism and extraversion in a general population. Older people score low more often on Extraversion (E) than younger people. Interactions were observed between neuroticism and age, gender, and extraversion with depression. The interaction term indicates a high score on Neuroticism (N) enhanced by introversion, older age, and being a male with depression. The findings suggest that health professionals may need to put extra effort into the care of patients with low extraversion and high neuroticism, in order to help those patients avoid depression.  
  Address Nord-Trondelag Univercity College, Namsos, Norway  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0161-2840 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:23146012 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 1526  
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Author Sivertsen, B.; Salo, P.; Mykletun, A.; Hysing, M.; Pallesen, S.; Krokstad, S.; Nordhus, I.H.; Overland, S. url  doi
  Title The bidirectional association between depression and insomnia: the HUNT study Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Psychosomatic Medicine Abbreviated Journal Psychosom Med  
  Volume 74 Issue 7 Pages 758-765  
  Keywords Adult; Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Comorbidity; Depression/*epidemiology; Depressive Disorder/*epidemiology; Female; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; Norway/epidemiology; Odds Ratio; Prospective Studies; Questionnaires; Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/*epidemiology; Time Factors  
  Abstract OBJECTIVE: Depression and insomnia are closely linked, yet our understanding of their prospective relationships remains limited. The aim of the current study was to investigate the directionality of association between depression and insomnia. METHODS: Data were collected from a prospective population-based study comprising the most recent waves of the Nord-Trondelag Health Study (HUNT) (the HUNT2 in 1995-1997 and the HUNT3 in 2006-2008). A total of 24,715 persons provided valid responses on the relevant questionnaires from both surveys. Study outcomes were onset of depression or insomnia at HUNT3 in persons not reporting the other disorder in HUNT2. RESULTS: Both insomnia and depression significantly predicted the onset of the other disorder. Participants who did not have depression in HUNT2 but who had insomnia in both HUNT2 and HUNT3 had an odds ratio (OR) of 6.2 of developing depression at HUNT3. Participants who did not have insomnia in HUNT2 but who had depression in both HUNT2 and HUNT3 had an OR of 6.7 of developing insomnia at HUNT3. ORs were only slightly attenuated when adjusting for potential confounding factors. CONCLUSIONS: The results support a bidirectional relationship between insomnia and depression. This finding stands in contrast to the previous studies, which have mainly focused on insomnia as a risk factor for the onset of depression.  
  Address Division of Mental Health, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Christiesgt 13, 5020 Bergen, Norway. borge.sivertsen@fhi.no  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0033-3174 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:22879427 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 1574  
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