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Author Hjerkind, K.V.; Stenehjem, J.S.; Nilsen, T.I.L. url  doi
  Title Adiposity, physical activity and risk of diabetes mellitus: prospective data from the population-based HUNT study, Norway Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication BMJ Open Abbreviated Journal BMJ Open  
  Volume 7 Issue 1 Pages e013142  
  Keywords *Adiposity; Adult; Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Body Mass Index; Comorbidity; Diabetes Mellitus/*epidemiology; *Exercise; Female; Humans; Longitudinal Studies; Male; Middle Aged; Norway/epidemiology; Odds Ratio; Overweight/*epidemiology; Prospective Studies; Risk Factors; Young Adult; *Epidemiology; *Public Health  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Physical activity may counteract the adverse effects of adiposity on cardiovascular mortality; however, the evidence of a similar effect on diabetes is sparse. This study examines whether physical activity may compensate for the adverse effect of adiposity on diabetes risk. METHODS: The study population consisted of 38 231 individuals aged 20 years or more who participated in two consecutive waves of the prospective longitudinal Nord-Trondelag Health Study in Norway: in 1984-1986 and in 1995-1997. A Poisson regression model with SEs derived from robust variance was used to estimate adjusted risk ratios of diabetes between categories of body mass index and physical activity. RESULTS: Risk of diabetes increased both with increasing body mass (Ptrend <0.001) and with decreasing physical activity level (Ptrend <0.001 in men and 0.01 in women). Combined analyses showed that men who were both obese and had low activity levels had a risk ratio of 17 (95% CI 9.52 to 30) compared to men who were normal weight and highly active, whereas obese men who reported high activity had a risk ratio of 13 (95% CI 6.92 to 26). Corresponding analysis in obese women produced risk ratios of 15 (95% CI 9.18 to 25) and 13 (95% CI 7.42 to 21) among women reporting low and high activity levels, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that overweight and obesity are associated with a substantially increased risk of diabetes, particularly among those who also reported being physically inactive. High levels of physical activity were associated with a lower risk of diabetes within all categories of body mass index, but there was no clear evidence that being physically active could entirely compensate for the adverse effect of adiposity on diabetes risk.  
  Address Cancer Registry of Norway, Institute of Population-based Cancer Research, Oslo, Norway  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2044-6055 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:28093432; PMCID:PMC5253523 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 1929  
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Author Rasouli, B.; Grill, V.; Midthjell, K.; Ahlbom, A.; Andersson, T.; Carlsson, S. url  doi
  Title Smoking is associated with reduced risk of autoimmune diabetes in adults contrasting with increased risk in overweight men with type 2 diabetes: a 22-year follow-up of the HUNT study Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Diabetes Care Abbreviated Journal Diabetes Care  
  Volume 36 Issue 3 Pages 604-610  
  Keywords Adult; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/*epidemiology/*etiology; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/*epidemiology; Female; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; Overweight/*epidemiology; Smoking/*adverse effects; Young Adult  
  Abstract OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between smoking habits and risk of autoimmune diabetes in adults and of type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We used data from the three surveys of the Nord-Trondelag Health Study, spanning 1984-2008 and including a cohort of 90,819 Norwegian men (48%) and women (52%) aged >/=20 years. Incident cases of diabetes were identified by questionnaire and classified as type 2 diabetes (n = 1,860) and autoimmune diabetes (n = 140) based on antibodies to glutamic decarboxylase (GADA) and age at onset of diabetes. Hazard ratios (HRs) adjusted for confounders were estimated by Cox proportional hazards regression models. RESULTS: The risk of autoimmune diabetes was reduced by 48% (HR 0.52 [95% CI 0.30-0.89]) in current smokers and 58% in heavy smokers (0.42 [0.18-0.98]). The reduced risk was positively associated with number of pack-years. Heavy smoking was associated with lower levels of GADA (P = 0.001) and higher levels of C-peptide (964 vs. 886 pmol/L; P = 0.03). In contrast, smoking was associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes, restricted to overweight men (1.33 [1.10-1.61]). Attributable proportion due to an interaction between overweight and heavy smoking was estimated to 0.40 (95% CI 0.23-0.57). CONCLUSIONS: In this epidemiological study, smoking is associated with a reduced risk of autoimmune diabetes, possibly linked to an inhibitory effect on the autoimmune process. An increased risk of type 2 diabetes was restricted to overweight men.  
  Address Department of Epidemiology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. bahareh.rasouli@ki.se  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0149-5992 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:23172971; PMC3579345 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 1569  
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Author Stray-Pedersen, M.; Helsing, R.M.; Gibbons, L.; Cormick, G.; Holmen, T.L.; Vik, T.; Belizan, J.M. url  doi
  Title Weight status and hypertension among adolescent girls in Argentina and Norway: data from the ENNyS and HUNT studies Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication BMC Public Health Abbreviated Journal BMC Public Health  
  Volume 9 Issue Pages 398  
  Keywords Adolescent Argentina/epidemiology Body Mass Index Female Humans Hypertension/complications/*epidemiology Norway/epidemiology Obesity/complications/*epidemiology Odds Ratio Overweight/*epidemiology Prevalence Young-HUNT HUNT1  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: To provide data on overweight, obesity and hypertension among adolescent girls in Norway and Argentina. METHODS: Data was obtained from two population-based, cross-sectional and descriptive studies containing anthropometric and blood pressure measurements of 15 to 18 year old girls. The study included 2,156 adolescent girls from Norway evaluated between 1995 and 1997, and 669 from Argentina evaluated between 2004 and 2005. RESULTS: Around 15% of adolescent girls in Norway and 19% in Argentina are overweight or obese. Body mass index (BMI) distribution in these two countries is similar, with a low percentage (< 1%) of girls classified as thin. Norwegian adolescents show a height mean value 8 cm taller than the Argentinean. Obesity is strongly associated with systolic hypertension in both populations, with odds ratios of 11.4 [1.6; 82.0] and 28.3 [11.8; 67.7] in Argentina and Norway, respectively. No direct association between BMI and systolic hypertension was found, and only extreme BMI values (above 80th – 90th percentile) were associated with hypertension. CONCLUSION: This study confirms a current world health problem by showing the high prevalence of obesity in adolescents and its association with hypertension in two different countries (one developed and one in transition).  
  Address Department of Mother & Child Health Research, Institute for Clinical Effectiveness and Health Policy (IECS), Buenos Aires, Argentina. strayped@gmail.com  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language eng Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2009/11/03  
  ISSN 1471-2458 (Electronic) 1471-2458 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Stray-Pedersen, Marit Helsing, Ragnhild M Gibbons, Luz Cormick, Gabriela Holmen, Turid L Vik, Torstein Belizan, Jose M eng Comparative Study England 2009/11/03 06:00 BMC Public Health. 2009 Oct 30;9:398. doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-9-398. Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ 1983 Serial 1344  
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