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  Title Worldwide trends in blood pressure from 1975 to 2015: a pooled analysis of 1479 population-based measurement studies with 19.1 million participants Type Comment
  Year 2017 Publication Lancet (London, England) Abbreviated Journal Lancet  
  Volume 389 Issue 10064 Pages 37-55  
  Keywords Bayes Theorem; *Blood Pressure; *Global Health; Humans; Prevalence; Risk Factors  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Raised blood pressure is an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and chronic kidney disease. We estimated worldwide trends in mean systolic and mean diastolic blood pressure, and the prevalence of, and number of people with, raised blood pressure, defined as systolic blood pressure of 140 mm Hg or higher or diastolic blood pressure of 90 mm Hg or higher. METHODS: For this analysis, we pooled national, subnational, or community population-based studies that had measured blood pressure in adults aged 18 years and older. We used a Bayesian hierarchical model to estimate trends from 1975 to 2015 in mean systolic and mean diastolic blood pressure, and the prevalence of raised blood pressure for 200 countries. We calculated the contributions of changes in prevalence versus population growth and ageing to the increase in the number of adults with raised blood pressure. FINDINGS: We pooled 1479 studies that had measured the blood pressures of 19.1 million adults. Global age-standardised mean systolic blood pressure in 2015 was 127.0 mm Hg (95% credible interval 125.7-128.3) in men and 122.3 mm Hg (121.0-123.6) in women; age-standardised mean diastolic blood pressure was 78.7 mm Hg (77.9-79.5) for men and 76.7 mm Hg (75.9-77.6) for women. Global age-standardised prevalence of raised blood pressure was 24.1% (21.4-27.1) in men and 20.1% (17.8-22.5) in women in 2015. Mean systolic and mean diastolic blood pressure decreased substantially from 1975 to 2015 in high-income western and Asia Pacific countries, moving these countries from having some of the highest worldwide blood pressure in 1975 to the lowest in 2015. Mean blood pressure also decreased in women in central and eastern Europe, Latin America and the Caribbean, and, more recently, central Asia, Middle East, and north Africa, but the estimated trends in these super-regions had larger uncertainty than in high-income super-regions. By contrast, mean blood pressure might have increased in east and southeast Asia, south Asia, Oceania, and sub-Saharan Africa. In 2015, central and eastern Europe, sub-Saharan Africa, and south Asia had the highest blood pressure levels. Prevalence of raised blood pressure decreased in high-income and some middle-income countries; it remained unchanged elsewhere. The number of adults with raised blood pressure increased from 594 million in 1975 to 1.13 billion in 2015, with the increase largely in low-income and middle-income countries. The global increase in the number of adults with raised blood pressure is a net effect of increase due to population growth and ageing, and decrease due to declining age-specific prevalence. INTERPRETATION: During the past four decades, the highest worldwide blood pressure levels have shifted from high-income countries to low-income countries in south Asia and sub-Saharan Africa due to opposite trends, while blood pressure has been persistently high in central and eastern Europe. FUNDING: Wellcome Trust.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author NCD Risk Factor Collaboration (NCD-RisC) Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0140-6736 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:27863813; PMCID:PMC5220163 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 1897  
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Author Bhatta, L.; Leivseth, L.; Mai, X.-M.; Chen, Y.; Henriksen, A.H.; Langhammer, A.; Brumpton, B.M. url  doi
  Title Prevalence and trend of COPD from 1995-1997 to 2006-2008: The HUNT study, Norway Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Respiratory Medicine Abbreviated Journal Respir Med  
  Volume 138 Issue Pages 50-56  
  Keywords Adult; Age Distribution; Aged; Disease Progression; Female; Forced Expiratory Volume/physiology; Forecasting; Health Surveys; Humans; Incidence; Male; Middle Aged; Norway/epidemiology; Prevalence; Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/*epidemiology/physiopathology; Severity of Illness Index; Sex Distribution; Spirometry/methods; Vital Capacity/physiology; *Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; *Incidence; *Norway; *Prevalence; *Symptoms; *Trends  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: COPD is a major cause of morbidity and mortality across the world and new estimates of prevalence and trend are of great importance. We aimed to estimate the prevalence and trend of COPD from 1995-1997 to 2006-2008 in Norwegian adults >/=40 years from the Nord-Trondelag Health Study. MATERIAL AND METHODS: COPD was assessed using a fixed-ratio and lower limit of normal (LLN) criteria. Pre-bronchodilator spirometry was performed during 1995-1997 (n=7158) and 2006-2008 (n=8788). The prevalence of COPD was weighted using the inverse probability of selection and predicted probability of response. RESULTS: The prevalence of pre-bronchodilator COPD was 16.7% in 1995-1997 and 14.8% in 2006-2008 using fixed-ratio criteria, and 10.4% in 1995-1997 and 7.3% in 2006-2008 using LLN criteria. The prevalence of LLN COPD was higher among men (13.0% in 1995-1997, 7.7% in 2006-2008) than women (8.0% in 1995-1997, 6.9% in 2006-2008). From 1995-1997 to 2006-2008, the prevalence decreased among men but remained relatively stable among women. Over the 11-year period, the cumulative incidence of pre-bronchodilator COPD using LLN criteria was 3.3% and 2.7% among men and women respectively. The prevalence of self-reported asthma and respiratory symptoms increased. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence declined in men but not in women from 1995-1997 to 2006-2008, and was consistently higher among men than women.  
  Address Department of Thoracic Medicine, St. Olavs Hospital, Trondheim University Hospital, Trondheim, Norway; K.G. Jebsen Center for Genetic Epidemiology, Department of Public Health and Nursing, NTNU, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway; MRC Integrative Epidemiology Unit, School of Social and Community Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK  
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  ISSN 0954-6111 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:29724393 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 2072  
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Author Bjorngaard, J.H.; Gunnell, D.; Elvestad, M.B.; Davey Smith, G.; Skorpen, F.; Krokan, H.; Vatten, L.; Romundstad, P. url  doi
  Title The causal role of smoking in anxiety and depression: a Mendelian randomization analysis of the HUNT study Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Psychological Medicine Abbreviated Journal Psychol Med  
  Volume 43 Issue 4 Pages 711-719  
  Keywords Adult; Alleles; Anxiety Disorders/*epidemiology/genetics; Body Mass Index; Causality; Chromosomes, Human, Pair 15/genetics; Depressive Disorder/*epidemiology/genetics; Female; Genetic Predisposition to Disease/epidemiology/genetics; Humans; Logistic Models; Male; *Mendelian Randomization Analysis; Middle Aged; Norway/epidemiology; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics; Pregnancy; Prevalence; Psychiatric Status Rating Scales; Receptors, Nicotinic/*genetics; Self Report; Smoking/*epidemiology/genetics/psychology; Young Adult  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking is strongly associated with mental illness but the causal direction of the association is uncertain. We investigated the causal relationship between smoking and symptoms of anxiety and depression in the Norwegian HUNT study using the rs1051730 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) variant located in the nicotine acetylcholine receptor gene cluster on chromosome 15 as an instrumental variable for smoking phenotypes. Among smokers, this SNP is robustly associated with smoking quantity and nicotine dependence. Method In total, 53 601 participants were genotyped for the rs1051730 SNP and provided information on smoking habits and symptoms of anxiety and depression using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). RESULTS: Self-reported smoking was positively associated with the prevalence of both anxiety and depression, and the measured polymorphism was positively associated with being a current smoker and the number of cigarettes smoked in current smokers. In the sample as a whole, risk of anxiety increased with each affected T allele [odds ratio (OR) 1.06, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02-1.09, p = 0.002] but there was no association with depression (p = 0.31). However, we found no clear association of the polymorphism with either anxiety (OR 1.03, 95% CI 0.97-1.09, p = 0.34) or depression (OR 1.02, 95% CI 0.95-1.09, p = 0.62) among smokers. CONCLUSIONS: As there was no association of the smoking-related rs1051730 SNP with anxiety and depression among smokers, the results suggest that smoking is not a cause of anxiety and depression.  
  Address Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway. johan.h.bjorngaard@ntnu.no  
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  ISSN 0033-2917 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:22687325 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 1465  
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Author Bosnes, I.; Almkvist, O.; Bosnes, O.; Stordal, E.; Romild, U.; Nordahl, H.M. url  doi
  Title Prevalence and correlates of successful aging in a population-based sample of older adults: the HUNT study Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication International Psychogeriatrics Abbreviated Journal Int Psychogeriatr  
  Volume 29 Issue 3 Pages 431-440  
  Keywords Hunt; components; correlates; prevalence; successful aging  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: The factors influencing successful aging (SA) are of great interest in an aging society. The aims of this study were to investigate the prevalence of SA, the relative importance across age of the three components used to define it (absence of disease and disability, high cognitive and physical function, and active engagement with life), and its correlates. METHODS: Data were extracted from the population-based cross-sectional Nord-Trondelag Health Study (HUNT3 2006-2008). Individuals aged 70-89 years with complete datasets for the three components were included (N = 5773 of 8,040, 71.8%). Of the respondents, 54.6% were women. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were used to analyze possible correlates of SA. RESULTS: Overall, 35.6% of the sample met one of the three criteria, 34.1% met combinations, and 14.5% met all of the three criteria. The most demanding criterion was high function, closely followed by absence of disease, while approximately two-thirds were actively engaged in life. The relative change with age was largest for the high cognitive and physical function component and smallest for active engagement with life. The significant correlates of SA were younger age, female gender, higher education, weekly exercise, more satisfaction with life, non-smoking, and alcohol consumption, whereas marital status was not related to SA. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of SA in this study (14.5%) is comparable to previous studies. It may be possible to increase the prevalence by intervention directed toward more exercise, non-smoking, and better satisfaction with life.  
  Address Department of Psychology,Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU),Trondheim,Norway  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1041-6102 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:27852332 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 1886  
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Author Eik-Nes, T.; Romild, U.; Guzey, I.; Holmen, T.; Micali, N.; Bjornelv, S.   
  Title Women's weight and disordered eating in a large Norwegian community sample: the Nord-Trondelag Health Study (HUNT) Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication BMJ Open Abbreviated Journal BMJ open  
  Volume 5 Issue 10 Pages e008125  
  Keywords HUNT3; Adult; Aged; Aged, 80 and over; *Body Weight; Cross-Sectional Studies; *Feeding Behavior; Feeding and Eating Disorders/*epidemiology/physiopathology; Female; Humans; Middle Aged; Norway/epidemiology; Prevalence; Young Adult  
  Abstract OBJECTIVES: An increasing part of the population is affected by disordered eating (DE) even though they do not meet the full eating disorder (ED) criteria. To improve treatment in the range of weight-related disorders, there is a need to improve our knowledge about DE and relevant correlates of weight problems such as underweight, overweight and obesity. However, studies investigating DE and weight problems in a wide range of ages in the general population have been lacking. This paper explores DE, weight problems, dieting and weight dissatisfaction among women in a general population sample. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: The third survey of the Nord-Trondelag Health Study (HUNT3). PARTICIPANTS: The population included 27 252 women, aged 19-99 years, with information on DE outcomes and covariates. OUTCOMES: DE was assessed with an 8-item version of the Eating Attitude Test and the Eating Disorder Scale-5. Body mass index (BMI) was objectively measured. Data on dieting and weight dissatisfaction were collected from self-reported questionnaires and analysed across weight categories. Crude and adjusted logistic and multinomial logistic regression models were used. RESULTS: High rates of overweight (38%) and obesity (23%) were found. DE was associated with weight problems. In women aged  
  Address  
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  Publisher Place of Publication Department of Neuroscience, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway Depart Editor  
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  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Eik-Nes2015 Serial 1804  
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Author Fagernaes, C.F.; Heuch, I.; Zwart, J.A.; Winsvold, B.S.; Linde, M.; Hagen, K.   
  Title Blood pressure as a risk factor for headache and migraine: a prospective population-based study Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Eur J Neurol Abbreviated Journal European journal of neurology  
  Volume 22 Issue 1 Pages 156-62,  
  Keywords Adult; Aged; Blood Pressure/*physiology; Blood Pressure Determination; Female; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; Migraine Disorders/*epidemiology; Norway/epidemiology; Prevalence; Prospective Studies; Risk Factors; Tension-Type Headache/*epidemiology; HUNT2; HUNT3  
  Abstract BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: During the past decade, several population-based studies have found an inverse association between blood pressure (BP) and headache. However, most of them have a cross-sectional design or lack a validated definition of a headache-free population at baseline. Therefore, additional population-based studies using a clearly defined headache-free population and a prospective design are warranted. METHODS: Data from two large epidemiological studies, the Nord-Trondelag Health Survey 1995-1997 (HUNT 2) and 2006-2008 (HUNT 3), were used to evaluate the association between BP (systolic, diastolic and pulse pressure) at baseline and headache (migraine and tension type headache) at follow-up. RESULTS: An inverse relationship was found between all three BP measures at baseline in HUNT 2 and any headache in HUNT 3, more evident for systolic BP [odds ratio (OR) 0.90 per 10 mmHg increase in systolic BP, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.87-0.93, P  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Department of Neuroscience, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway. Editor  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Fagernaes2015 Serial 1807  
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Author Felde, G.; Ebbesen, M.H.; Hunskaar, S. url  doi
  Title Anxiety and depression associated with urinary incontinence. A 10-year follow-up study from the Norwegian HUNT study (EPINCONT) Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Neurourology and Urodynamics Abbreviated Journal Neurourol Urodyn  
  Volume 36 Issue 2 Pages 322-328  
  Keywords Adult; Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Anxiety/*epidemiology/etiology/psychology; Depression/*epidemiology/etiology/psychology; Female; Humans; Incidence; Longitudinal Studies; Middle Aged; Norway; Prevalence; Risk Factors; Urinary Incontinence/*complications/psychology; Young Adult; Epincont; Hads; Hunt; anxiety; depression; epidemiology; urinary incontinence  
  Abstract AIMS: Firstly, to investigate the association between depression, anxiety and urinary incontinence (UI) in a 10-year longitudinal study of women. Secondly, to investigate the association between possible differences in the stress- and urgency components of UI and different severities of depression and anxiety by age groups. METHODS: In a longitudinal, population-based survey study, the EPINCONT part of the HUNT study in Norway, we analyzed questionnaire data on UI, depression and anxiety from 16,263 women from 20 years of age. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to predict the odds of developing anxiety and depression among the women with and without UI at baseline and the odds of developing UI among the women with and without anxiety or depression at baseline. RESULTS: For women with any UI at baseline we found an association with the incidence of depression and anxiety symptoms, OR 1.45 (1.23-1.72) and 1.26 (1.8-1.47) for mild depression and anxiety respectively. For women with depression or anxiety symptoms at baseline we found an association with the incidence of any UI with OR 2.09 (1.55-2.83) and 1.65 (1.34-2.03) for moderate/severe symptom-score for depression and anxiety, respectively, for the whole sample. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, both depression and anxiety are shown to be risk factors for developing UI with a dose-dependent trend. UI is associated with increased incidence of depression and anxiety. Neurourol. Urodynam. 36:322-328, 2017. (c) 2015 The Authors. Neurourology and Urodynamics Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.  
  Address National Centre for Emergency Primary Health Care, Uni Research Health, Bergen, Norway  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0733-2467 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:26584597 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 1902  
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Author Fleiner, H.F.; Bjoro, T.; Midthjell, K.; Grill, V.; Asvold, B.O. url  doi
  Title Prevalence of Thyroid Dysfunction in Autoimmune and Type 2 Diabetes: The Population-Based HUNT Study in Norway Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication J Clin Endocrinol Metab Abbreviated Journal The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism  
  Volume 101 Issue 2 Pages 669-677  
  Keywords Adult; Age of Onset; Aged; Cross-Sectional Studies; Databases, Factual; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/*complications/*epidemiology; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/*complications/*epidemiology; Female; Humans; Hyperthyroidism/complications/epidemiology; Hypothyroidism/complications/epidemiology; Iodide Peroxidase/blood/immunology; Male; Middle Aged; Norway/epidemiology; Prevalence; Sex Factors; Thyroid Diseases/*complications/*epidemiology; Thyroid Hormones/blood  
  Abstract CONTEXT: Associations between autoimmune diabetes and autoimmune thyroid disease are known but insufficiently characterized. Some evidence suggests that type 2 diabetes may also be associated with hypothyroidism. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to investigate associations of autoimmune and type 2 diabetes with the prevalence of hypo- and hyperthyroidism. DESIGN AND SETTING: This was a cross-sectional, population-based study of adults in two surveys of the Nord-Trondelag Health (HUNT) Study. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 34 235 participants of HUNT2 (1995-1997) and 48 809 participants of HUNT3 (2006-2008) participated in the study. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence of hypo- and hyperthyroidism was estimated, assessed by self-report, serum measurements, and linkage with the Norwegian Prescription Database. RESULTS: In HUNT2, autoimmune diabetes was associated with a higher age-adjusted prevalence of hypothyroidism among both women (prevalence ratio 1.79, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.30-2.47) and men (prevalence ratio 2.71, 95% CI 1.76-4.19), compared with having no diabetes. For hyperthyroidism, the corresponding cumulative prevalence ratios were 2.12 (95% CI 1.36-3.32) in women and 2.54 (95% CI 1.24-5.18) in men with autoimmune diabetes. The age-adjusted excess prevalence of hypothyroidism ( approximately 6 percentage points) and the presence of thyroid peroxidase antibodies (8-10 percentage points) associated with autoimmune diabetes was similar in women and men. Type 2 diabetes was not associated with the prevalence of hypothyroidism. In HUNT3, associations were broadly similar to those in HUNT2. CONCLUSIONS: Autoimmune diabetes, but not type 2 diabetes, was strongly and gender neutrally associated with an increased prevalence of hypo- and hyperthyroidism and the presence of thyroid peroxidase antibodies. Increased surveillance for hypothyroidism appears not necessary in patients with type 2 diabetes.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Department of Cancer Research and Molecular Medicine (H.F.F., V.G.), Norwegian University of Science Editor  
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  Notes Fleiner, Hanne FBjoro, TrineMidthjell, KristianGrill, ValdemarAsvold, Bjorn OengResearch Support, Non-U.S. Gov't2015/11/20 06:00J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2016 Feb;101(2):669-77. doi: 10.1210/jc.2015-3235. Epub 2015 Nov 19. Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Fleiner2016 Serial 1738  
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Author Gabin, J.M.; Tambs, K.; Saltvedt, I.; Sund, E.; Holmen, J. url  doi
  Title Association between blood pressure and Alzheimer disease measured up to 27 years prior to diagnosis: the HUNT Study Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Alzheimer's Research & Therapy Abbreviated Journal Alzheimers Res Ther  
  Volume 9 Issue 1 Pages 37  
  Keywords Age Distribution; Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Alzheimer Disease/*diagnosis/*epidemiology; Asymptomatic Diseases/*epidemiology; Blood Pressure Determination/statistics & numerical data; Comorbidity; Dementia/diagnosis/epidemiology; Disease Progression; Female; Humans; Hypertension/*diagnostic imaging/*epidemiology; Incidence; Longitudinal Studies; Male; Middle Aged; Norway/epidemiology; Prevalence; Reproducibility of Results; Risk Factors; Sensitivity and Specificity; Sex Distribution; Alzheimer disease; Blood pressure; Epidemiology; Prospective case cohort; Risk factors; Vascular dementia  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: A lot of attention has been paid to the relationship of blood pressure and dementia because epidemiological research has reported conflicting evidence. Observational data has shown that midlife hypertension is a risk factor for cognitive decline and dementia later in life, whereas there is evidence that low blood pressure is predictive in later life. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between dementia and blood pressure measured up to 27 years (mean 17.6 years) prior to ascertainment. METHODS: In Nord-Trondelag County, Norway, incident dementia data were collected during 1995-2011, and the diagnoses were validated by a panel of experts in the field. By using the subjects' personal identification numbers, the dementia data were linked to data from the Nord-Trondelag Health Study (the HUNT Study), a large, population-based health study performed in 1984-1986 (HUNT 1) and 1995-1997 (HUNT 2). A total of 24,638 participants of the HUNT Study were included in the present study, 579 of whom were diagnosed with Alzheimer disease, mixed Alzheimer/vascular dementia, or vascular dementia. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to analyze the association between dementia and blood pressure data from HUNT 1 and HUNT 2. RESULTS: Over the age of 60 years, consistent inverse associations were observed between systolic blood pressure and all-cause dementia, mixed Alzheimer/vascular dementia, and Alzheimer disease, but not with vascular dementia, when adjusting for age, sex, education, and other relevant covariates. This was observed for systolic blood pressure in both HUNT 1 and HUNT 2, regardless of antihypertensive medication use. There was an adverse association between systolic blood pressure, pulse pressure, and Alzheimer disease in individuals treated with antihypertensive medication under the age of 60 years. CONCLUSIONS: Our data are in line with those in previous studies demonstrating an inverse association between dementia and systolic blood pressure in individuals over the age of 60 years. We cannot exclude a survival effect, however. Among middle-aged subjects (<60 years), elevated systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure were associated with eventual Alzheimer disease in individuals who reported using antihypertensive medication.  
  Address HUNT Research Centre, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences , Department of Public Health and Nursing, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Forskningsveien 2, 7600, Levanger, Norway  
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  ISSN 1758-9193 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:28569205; PMCID:PMC5452294 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 1900  
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Author Hagen, K.; Linde, M.; Steiner, T.J.; Stovner, L.J.; Zwart, J.-A. url  doi
  Title Risk factors for medication-overuse headache: an 11-year follow-up study. The Nord-Trondelag Health Studies Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Pain Abbreviated Journal Pain  
  Volume 153 Issue 1 Pages 56-61  
  Keywords Adult; Aged; Analgesics/*adverse effects; Female; Follow-Up Studies; Headache Disorders, Secondary/chemically induced/*epidemiology; Humans; Incidence; Longitudinal Studies; Male; Middle Aged; Norway/epidemiology; Prevalence; Risk Factors  
  Abstract Medication-overuse headache (MOH) is relatively common, but its incidence has not been calculated and there are no prospective population-based studies that have evaluated risk factors for developing MOH. The aim of this study was to estimate incidences of and identify risk factors for developing chronic daily headache (CDH) and MOH. This longitudinal population-based cohort study used data from the Nord-Trondelag Health Surveys performed in 1995-1997 and 2006-2008. Among the 51,383 participants at baseline, 41,766 were eligible approximately 11 years later. There were 26,197 participants (responder rate 63%), among whom 25,596 did not report CDH at baseline in 1995-1997. Of these, 201 (0.8%) had MOH and 246 (1.0%) had CDH without medication overuse (CDHwoO) 11 years later. The incidence of MOH was 0.72 per 1000 person-years (95% confidence interval 0.62-0.81). In the multivariate analyses, a 5-fold risk for developing MOH was found among individuals who at baseline reported regular use of tranquilizers [odds ratio 5.2 (3.0-9.0)] or who had a combination of chronic musculoskeletal complaints, gastrointestinal complaints, and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale score >/= 11 [odds ratio 4.7 (2.4-9.0)]. Smoking and physical inactivity more than doubled the risk of MOH. In contrast, these factors did not increase the risk of CDHwoO. In this large population-based 11-year follow-up study, several risk factors for MOH did not increase the risk for CDHwoO, suggesting these are pathogenetically distinct. If the noted associations are causal, more focus on comorbid condition, physical activity, and use of tobacco and tranquilizers may limit the development of MOH.  
  Address Department of Neuroscience, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway. knut.hagen@ntnu.no  
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  ISSN 0304-3959 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:22018971 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 1527  
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Author Helvik, A.-S.; Engedal, K.; Krokstad, S.; Stordal, E.; Selbaek, G. url  doi
  Title A comparison of depressive symptoms in elderly medical inpatients and the elderly in a population-based health study (the Nord-Trondelag Health Study 3) Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Nordic Journal of Psychiatry Abbreviated Journal Nord J Psychiatry  
  Volume 66 Issue 3 Pages 189-197  
  Keywords Age Factors; Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Anxiety/epidemiology; Anxiety Disorders/complications/diagnosis/epidemiology; Cross-Sectional Studies; Depression/*epidemiology; Depressive Disorder/diagnosis/*epidemiology; Depressive Disorder, Major/complications; Female; *Health Status; Humans; Inpatients/*statistics & numerical data; Male; Norway/epidemiology; Odds Ratio; Prevalence; Risk; Rural Population; Urban Population  
  Abstract AIM: To compare depression in a sample of the medically hospitalized elderly with elderly people participating in a population-based health study in Norway and further to study the odds for depression, controlling for demographic and health differences between the two samples. METHOD: This cross-sectional observational study evaluated 484 medical inpatients from rural areas and 10,765 drawn from the Nord-Trondelag Health Study 3 (HUNT-3 Study) including participants from rural and urban areas. All participants were elderly (>/=65 years) with a mean (+/- standard deviation) age of 80.7 +/- 7.4 and 73.3 +/- 6.3 years, respectively. Symptoms of depression were screened by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HAD). RESULTS: The prevalence of symptoms indicating mild, moderate or more severe depression (depression score >/=8) was about the same in both groups. In regression analyses, adjusting demographic and health differences, the odds for depression was lower for the elderly in the hospital sample than in the HUNT-3 Study. Older age, male gender, perceiving general health as poor, having impaired ability to function in daily life, previous consultation or treatment for emotional problems and anxiety (anxiety score >/=8) were associated with increased odds for depression in the elderly independent of being hospitalized or not. CONCLUSION: Surprisingly, we found the odds for depression after controlling for demographic and health variables to be lower in the hospitalized elderly individuals than in the elderly participating in the population-based health study. The health variables that were most strongly associated with an increased risk of depression were poor physical health and anxiety.  
  Address Department of Public Health and General Practice, Faculty of Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim, Norway. Anne-Sofi e.Helvik@ntnu.no  
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  ISSN 0803-9488 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:21958367 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 1530  
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Author Hoff, M.; Gulati, A.M.; Romundstad, P.R.; Kavanaugh, A.; Haugeberg, G. url  doi
  Title Prevalence and incidence rates of psoriatic arthritis in central Norway: data from the Nord-Trondelag health study (HUNT) Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases Abbreviated Journal Ann Rheum Dis  
  Volume 74 Issue 1 Pages 60-64  
  Keywords HUNT3; Adult; Aged; Arthritis, Psoriatic/*epidemiology; Female; Humans; Incidence; Male; Middle Aged; Norway/epidemiology; Prevalence; Young Adult; Epidemiology; Psoriatic Arthritis; Treatment  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: A wide range in the prevalence (<0.01-0.25%) and incidence (0.5-23.1/100 000) of psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is reported. The main objective of this study was to examine the prevalence and incidence of PsA in central Norway. METHOD: The patients were recruited from the Nord-Trondelag Health Study 3, a population study carried out in 2006-2008. All 94 194 inhabitants aged >20 years were invited and 50 806 (54%) responded. The study consisted of a questionnaire (Q1) and a brief medical examination. Q1 included questions if the persons suffered from psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis (RA) or ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Patients with self-reported psoriasis further answered a specific questionnaire on psoriasis including a questionnaire concerning PsA. In order to identify patients with PsA we used the following criteria: Persons reporting they had or may have PsA; persons answering that they had psoriasis and RA; and persons answering that they had psoriasis and AS. Using this approach, 1278 patients were identified. Hospital files were evaluated by a rheumatologist according to a predefined protocol to verify the diagnosis of PsA. RESULTS: 338 patients, 144 men and 194 women, were verified to have PsA. The prevalence of PsA was 6.7 (95% CI 5.9 to 7.4) per 1000 inhabitants >20 years with no significant difference between men and women. In the 9-year period of 2000-2008, a total of 188 patients were diagnosed with PsA, which give an incidence rate of 41.3/100 000 (35.8-47.6). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of PsA in central Norway appears to be higher than previously reported. The reason for this is unknown and may include environmental factors, life style factors and genetic differences.  
  Address Department of Rheumatology, Hospital of Southern Norway Trust, Kristiansand, Norway Department of Neuroscience, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0003-4967 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:23962458 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 1681  
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Author Hoftun, G.B.; Romundstad, P.R.; Rygg, M. url  doi
  Title Factors associated with adolescent chronic non-specific pain, chronic multisite pain, and chronic pain with high disability: the Young-HUNT Study 2008 Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication The Journal of Pain : Official Journal of the American Pain Society Abbreviated Journal J Pain  
  Volume 13 Issue 9 Pages 874-883  
  Keywords Adolescent; Anxiety/epidemiology; Chronic Pain/*epidemiology/*physiopathology/psychology; Depression/epidemiology; *Disabled Persons; Female; Humans; *Life Style; Male; Norway; Outcome Assessment (Health Care); Prevalence; Psychology; Retrospective Studies; Risk Factors; Sex Factors  
  Abstract The aim of this study was to assess the association of chronic pain with different lifestyle factors and psychological symptoms in a large, unselected adolescent population. Pain was evaluated as chronic non-specific pain, chronic multisite pain, and in additional analyses, chronic pain with high disability. The study was performed during 2006 to 2008 in Nord-Trondelag County, Norway. Adolescents aged 13 to 18 years were invited to participate. The response rate was 78%. The final study population consisted of 7,373. Sedentary behavior and pain were associated only in girls. In both sexes, overweight and obesity were associated with increased odds of pain. Whereas both smoking and alcohol intoxication showed strong associations with pain, the associations were attenuated after adjustments for psychosocial factors. Symptoms of anxiety and depression showed the strongest associations with pain (odds ratio 4.1 in girls and 3.7 in boys). The odds of pain increased gradually by number of unfavorable lifestyle factors reported. This study revealed consistent associations between lifestyle factors, anxiety and depression, and chronic pain, including multisite pain and pain with high disability. The consistency across the different pain categories suggests common underlying explanatory mechanisms, and despite the cross-sectional design, the study indicates several modifiable targets in the management of adolescent chronic pain. PERSPECTIVE: This study showed a clear and consistent relation between different lifestyle factors, anxiety and depression, and the pain categories chronic non-specific pain, multisite pain, and also pain with high disability. Independent of causality, it underlines the importance of a broad perspective when studying, preventing, and treating chronic pain in adolescents.  
  Address Department of Laboratory Medicine, Children's and Women's Health, Faculty of Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway. gry.b.hoftun@ntnu.no  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1526-5900 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:22832694 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 1531  
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Author Jacobsena, B.A.; Dyb, G.; Hagen, K.; Stovner, L.J.; Holmen, T.L.; Zwart, J.-A. url  doi
  Title The Nord-Trondelag Health Study shows increased prevalence of primary recurrent headaches among adolescents over a four-year period Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Scandinavian Journal of Pain Abbreviated Journal Scand J Pain  
  Volume 2 Issue 3 Pages 148-152  
  Keywords Adolescents; Epidemiology; Headache; Migraine; Prevalence; Tension-type headache  
  Abstract Objective Earlier epidemiological studies have shown that headaches are frequent among adolescents, especially girls. In particular, recurrent primary headache disorders such as migraine and tension-type headaches are common complaints in this age group. Headaches are increasingly being recognized as a significant health problem in adolescents and can lead to significant disabilities by affecting their lives, their school performance and their social lives. The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of primary headaches among adolescents aged 16-20 years in Norway in two periods. Very few replicate studies have re-evaluated the prevalence of primary headaches in this age range and it is uncertain whether the prevalence is increasing. Methods Two cross-sectional, population-based studies were conducted in Norway from 1995 to 1997 (Young-HUNT 1) and from 1999 to 2001 (Young-HUNT 2). In Young-HUNT 1, 2594 adolescents in 2nd and 3rd grade in upper secondary school (aged 16-20 years) completed a comprehensive questionnaire including one question regarding headache during the last 12 months. In addition, 1730 of the students were interviewed about their headache complaints. In Young-HUNT 2, 2373 adolescents aged 16-20 years completed the same questionnaire and 1655 were interviewed in the same way as the earlier survey. The interviews were performed by trained nurses, and respondents were asked if they had experienced recurrent headache during the last year. If so, the headache was classified as migraine (MI), tensiontype headache (TTH) or non-classifiable headache (NCH). Headache frequency during the past year was recorded according to the following categories: Less than 1 day per month (less than monthly), 1-3 days per month (monthly), 1-5 days per week (weekly), or more than 5 days per week (daily). Results The participation rate was 88% in Young-HUNT 1 and 81% in Young-HUNT 2. The overall prevalence of having had headaches during the last 12 months did not change significantly (79.4% versus 77.5%; OR: 0.89, 95%CI: 0.79-1.02, p = 0.09), whereas the prevalence of recurrent headaches increased from 30.3% in Young-HUNT 1 to 35.4% in Young-HUNT 2 (OR: 1.26, 95%CI: 1.09-1.46, p = 0.002). The prevalence of tension-type headache changed significantly from 19.0% to 21.9% (OR: 1.20, 95%CI: 1.02-1.42, p = 0.03). Also the prevalence of migraine tended to increase (7.5% versus 8.7%, OR: 1.18, 95%CI: 0.92-1.52, p = 0.18). The overall frequency of recurrent headache changed towards more monthly and less weekly headache. Conclusions This is the first large-scale population-based study among adolescents in Norway assessing changes in the prevalence of primary headaches over a four-year period of time. The overall prevalence of recurrent headaches increased significantly from Young-HUNT 1 to Young-HUNT 2. An increase was seen in all types of recurrent headaches and was significant for tension-type headache. Implications Earlier follow-up studies have examined changes in prevalence of recurrent headaches in young age, but the results are diverging. Our findings support the impression that the prevalence of recurrent headache among adolescents is increasing, and underlines the need for prospective designed studies with emphasis on prognosis and etiological factors.  
  Address National Centre for Spinal Disorders, St. Olavs Hospital, Trondheim, Norway  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1877-8860 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:29913741 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 2114  
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Author Knudsen, A.K.; Skogen, J.C. url  doi
  Title Monthly variations in self-report of time-specified and typical alcohol use: the Nord-Trondelag Health Study (HUNT3) Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication BMC Public Health Abbreviated Journal BMC public health  
  Volume 15 Issue Pages 172  
  Keywords Adult; Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Alcohol Drinking/*epidemiology; *Alcoholic Beverages; Bias (Epidemiology); Data Collection/*standards; Female; Health Surveys/*standards; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; Prevalence; Research Design; Risk Factors; Seasons; Self Report; Time Factors; Young Adult  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Aggregated measures are often employed when prevalence, risk factors and consequences of alcohol use in the population are monitored. In order to avoid time-dependent bias in aggregated measures, reference periods which assess alcohol use over longer time-periods or measures assessing typical alcohol use are considered superior to reference periods assessing recent or current alcohol consumption. Alcohol consumption in the population is found to vary through the months of the year, but it is not known whether monthly variations in actual alcohol use affects self-reports of long-term or typical alcohol consumption. Using data from a large, population-based study with data-collection over two years, the aim of the present study was to examine whether self-reported measures of alcohol use with different reference periods fluctuated across the months of the year. METHODS: Participants in the third wave of the Nord-Trondelag Health Survey (HUNT3) answered questions regarding alcohol use in the last 4 weeks, weekly alcohol consumption last twelve months, typical weekly binge drinking and typical number of alcoholic drinks consumed in a 14 day period. For each of the alcohol measures, monthly variations in reporting were estimated and compared to the overall average. RESULTS: Monthly variations in self-reported alcohol use were found across all alcohol measures regardless of reference period. A general tendency was found for highest level of alcohol use being reported during the summer season, however, the highest number of individuals who reported alcohol use in the last 4 weeks was found in January. Women reported substantially larger increase in weekly binge drinking during the summer months than men. CONCLUSIONS: Self-reports of alcohol use over longer time and typical alcohol use varies according to the month the respondents are assessed. Monthly variations should therefore be taken into account when designing, analyzing and interpreting data from population-based studies aimed to examine descriptive and analytical characteristics of alcohol use in the population.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Department of Health Registries, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Kalfarveien 31, 5018, Bergen, Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
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  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Knudsen, Ann KristinSkogen, Jens ChristofferengEngland2015/04/18 06:00BMC Public Health. 2015 Feb 21;15:172. doi: 10.1186/s12889-015-1533-8. Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Knudsen2015 Serial 1832  
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Author Kvehaugen, A.S.; Melien, O.; Holmen, O.L.; Laivuori, H.; Dechend, R.; Staff, A.C. url  doi
  Title Hypertension after preeclampsia and relation to the C1114G polymorphism (rs4606) in RGS2: data from the Norwegian HUNT2 study Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication BMC Medical Genetics Abbreviated Journal BMC Med Genet  
  Volume 15 Issue Pages 28  
  Keywords Adult; Case-Control Studies; Exercise; Female; Genetic Association Studies; Genetic Predisposition to Disease; Genotype; Humans; Hypertension/epidemiology/*genetics; Norway; *Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide; Pre-Eclampsia/epidemiology/*genetics; Pregnancy; Prevalence; RGS Proteins/*genetics; Risk Factors; HUNT2  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Preeclampsia is associated with an increased risk of hypertension later in life. The regulator of G protein signaling 2 negatively regulates several vasoconstrictors. We recently demonstrated an association between preeclampsia and the CG or GG genotype of the C1114G polymorphism (rs4606) of the regulator of G protein signaling 2 gene. Here, we examined the polymorphism with respect to the development of hypertension after pregnancy. METHODS: We genotyped 934 women on average 15.1 years after preeclampsia and 2011 age matched women with previous normotensive pregnancy. All women in this study were retrospectively recruited from the Nord-Trondelag Health Study (HUNT2). Information from HUNT2 was linked to the Medical Birth Registry of Norway to identify women with a history of preeclampsia and women without a history of preeclampsia. RESULTS: No significant association was found between hypertension (blood pressure >/=140/90 mmHg and/or taking antihypertensive drugs) and the polymorphism in crude analysis (OR (95% CI): CG genotype: 1.07 (0.90-1.27); GG genotype: 1.23 (0.90-1.67)). However, in a minimally adjusted model (age and BMI adjusted), a significant association between the GG genotype and hypertension was found (OR (95% CI): 1.49 (1.05-2.11)). This association remained significant also after adjustment for a history of preeclampsia (OR (95% CI): 1.46 (1.02-2.09)), but not in a model adjusted for multiple other variables (OR (95% CI): 1.26 (0.82-1.94)). In multivariate, but not in crude, analysis, the GG genotype of rs4606 (OR (95% CI): 1.93 (1.05-3.53)) was significantly and independently associated with severe hypertension later in life, defined as systolic blood pressure >/=160 mmHg (stage 2 hypertension) and/or taking antihypertensive drugs. A significant association was also found for the merged CG and GG genotypes (OR (95% CI): 1.43 (1.02-2.00)). Moreover, an interaction with physical activity was found. A history of preeclampsia was a significant and independent predictor of either definition of hypertension, both in crude and adjusted analyses. CONCLUSION: Women carrying the rs4606 CG or GG genotype are at elevated risk for developing hypertension after delivery. Physical activity may interact with the association. Preeclampsia remains an independent risk factor for subsequent hypertension after adjusting for this polymorphism and classical CVD risk factors.  
  Address From the Department of Obstetrics and Department of Gynecology, Oslo University Hospital, Ulleval, Oslo, Norway and Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway. UXNNAF@ous-hf.no  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1471-2350 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:24593135; PMC3973870 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 1624  
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Author Kvehaugen, A.S.; Melien, O.; Holmen, O.L.; Laivuori, H.; Oian, P.; Andersgaard, A.B.; Dechend, R.; Staff, A.C. url  doi
  Title Single nucleotide polymorphisms in G protein signaling pathway genes in preeclampsia Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Hypertension Abbreviated Journal Hypertension  
  Volume 61 Issue 3 Pages 655-661  
  Keywords Adult; Atherosclerosis/epidemiology/genetics; Biological Specimen Banks/statistics & numerical data; European Continental Ancestry Group/genetics/statistics & numerical data; Female; Gene Frequency; Genetic Predisposition to Disease/epidemiology; Heterotrimeric GTP-Binding Proteins/*genetics; Humans; Norway/epidemiology; Polymorphism, Genetic; *Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide; Pre-Eclampsia/epidemiology/*genetics; Pregnancy; Prevalence; RGS Proteins/*genetics; Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1/genetics; Signal Transduction/*genetics; Young Adult  
  Abstract Preeclampsia is a pregnancy specific disorder and a risk factor for later cardiovascular disease. The cause and detailed pathophysiology remains unknown. G protein signaling is involved in a variety of physiological processes, including blood pressure regulation. We assessed whether distributions of 3 single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes coding for components of G protein signaling pathways that have been associated with hypertension differ between women with preeclampsia and normotensive pregnant women; the G protein beta3 subunit gene (GNB3) C825T polymorphism (rs5443), the angiotensin II type 1 receptor gene (AGTR1) 3'UTR A1166C polymorphism (rs5186), and the regulator of G protein signaling 2 gene (RGS2) 3'UTR C1114G polymorphism (rs4606). Two separate Norwegian study populations were used; a large population based study and a smaller, but clinically well-described pregnancy biobank. A descriptive study of 43 women with eclampsia was additionally included. In the population-based study, an increased odds of preeclampsia (odds ratio, 1.21; [95% confidence interval, 1.05-1.40]; P=0.009) and recurrent preeclampsia (odds ratio, 1.43; [95% confidence interval, 1.06-1.92];, P=0.017) was found in women carrying the rs4606 CG or GG genotype. In early-onset preeclamptic patients with decidual spiral artery biopsies available (n=24), the rs4606 CG or GG genotype was more frequent in those with acute atherosis (resembling early stage of atherosclerosis) compared with those without: odds ratio, 15.0; (95% confidence interval, 2.02-111.2); P=0.004. No association was found between preeclampsia and the rs5443 or the rs5186. The genotype distribution in eclamptic women was not different from preeclamptic women. In conclusion, RGS2 rs4606 may affect the risk and progression of preeclampsia.  
  Address Department of Obstetrics, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0194-911X ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:23339167 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 1432  
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Author Landmark, T.; Romundstad, P.; Dale, O.; Borchgrevink, P.C.; Kaasa, S. url  doi
  Title Estimating the prevalence of chronic pain: validation of recall against longitudinal reporting (the HUNT pain study) Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Pain Abbreviated Journal Pain  
  Volume 153 Issue 7 Pages 1368-1373  
  Keywords Adult; Aged; Chronic Pain/*diagnosis/*epidemiology; Cross-Sectional Studies; Female; Follow-Up Studies; Humans; Longitudinal Studies; Male; Mental Recall/*physiology; Middle Aged; Norway/epidemiology; *Pain Measurement; Prevalence; Questionnaires; Reproducibility of Results; Young Adult  
  Abstract Methods for classifying chronic pain in population studies are highly variable, and prevalence estimates ranges from 11% to 64%. Limited knowledge about the persistence of pain and the validity of recall questions defining chronic pain make findings difficult to interpret and compare. The primary aim of the current study was to characterize the persistence of pain in the general population and to validate recall measures against longitudinal reporting of pain. A random sample of 6419 participants from a population study (the HUNT 3 study in Norway) was invited to report pain on the SF-8 verbal pain rating scale every 3 months over a 12-month period and to report pain lasting more than 6 months at 12-month follow-up. Complete data were obtained from 3364 participants. Pain reporting was highly stable (intraclass correlation 0.66, 95% confidence interval 0.65 to 0.67), and the prevalence of chronic pain varied considerably according to level of severity and persistence: 31% reported mild pain or more, whereas 2% reported severe pain on 4 of 4 consecutive measurements. When defined as moderate pain or more on at least 3 of 4 consecutive measurements, the prevalence was 26%. Compared with the longitudinal classification, a cross-sectional measure of moderate pain or more during the last week on the SF-8 scale presented a sensitivity of 82% and a specificity of 84%, and a sensitivity of 80% and a specificity of 90% when combined with a 6-month recall question. Thus pain reporting in the general population is stable and cross-sectional measures may give valid prevalence estimates of chronic pain.  
  Address Department of Cancer Research and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway. tormod.landmark@ntnu.no  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0304-3959 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:22575226 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 1539  
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Author Langhammer, A.; Krokstad, S.; Romundstad, P.; Heggland, J.; Holmen, J. url  doi
  Title The HUNT study: participation is associated with survival and depends on socioeconomic status, diseases and symptoms Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication BMC Medical Research Methodology Abbreviated Journal BMC Med Res Methodol  
  Volume 12 Issue Pages 143  
  Keywords Adult; Age Distribution; Aged, 80 and over; Anthropometry; Female; Heart Diseases; Humans; Life Style; Male; Middle Aged; Norway/epidemiology; *Patient Participation/statistics & numerical data; Prevalence; *Quality of Life; Questionnaires/*standards; Sex Distribution; *Social Class; *Survival Analysis  
  Abstract ATTENTION: This publication contains an error. In table 2 and table 3 the column labels for genders have been replaced; instead of Women / Men there should be Men /Women

BACKGROUND: Population based studies are important for prevalence, incidence and association studies, but their external validity might be threatened by decreasing participation rates. The 50 807 participants in the third survey of the HUNT Study (HUNT3, 2006-08), represented 54% of the invited, necessitating a nonparticipation study. METHODS: Questionnaire data from HUNT3 were compared with data collected from several sources: a short questionnaire to nonparticipants, anonymous data on specific diagnoses and prescribed medication extracted from randomly selected general practices, registry data from Statistics Norway on socioeconomic factors and mortality, and from the Norwegian Prescription Database on drug consumption. RESULTS: Participation rates for HUNT3 depended on age, sex and type of symptoms and diseases, but only small changes were found in the overall prevalence estimates when including data from 6922 nonparticipants. Among nonparticipants, the prevalences of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus and psychiatric disorders were higher both in nonparticipant data and data extracted from general practice, compared to that reported by participants, whilst the opposite pattern was found, at least among persons younger than 80 years, for urine incontinence, musculoskeletal pain and headache. Registry data showed that the nonparticipants had lower socioeconomic status and a higher mortality than participants. CONCLUSION: Nonparticipants had lower socioeconomic status, higher mortality and showed higher prevalences of several chronic diseases, whilst opposite patterns were found for common problems like musculoskeletal pain, urine incontinence and headache. The impact on associations should be analyzed for each diagnosis, and data making such analyses possible are provided in the present paper.
 
  Address HUNT Research Centre, Department of Public Health and General Practice, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Levanger, Norway. arnulf.langhammer@ntnu.no  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1471-2288 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:22978749; PMC3512497 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 1541  
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Author Laugsand, L.E.; Asvold, B.O.; Vatten, L.J.; Romundstad, P.R.; Wiseth, R.; Hveem, K.; Janszky, I. url  doi
  Title Metabolic factors and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein: the HUNT study Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication European Journal of Preventive Cardiology Abbreviated Journal Eur J Prev Cardiol  
  Volume 19 Issue 5 Pages 1101-1110  
  Keywords Age Distribution; Body Mass Index; C-Reactive Protein/*metabolism; Cross-Sectional Studies; Female; Follow-Up Studies; Humans; Male; Metabolic Syndrome X/*blood/epidemiology; Middle Aged; Norway/epidemiology; *Population Surveillance; Prevalence; Retrospective Studies; Risk Factors; Sex Distribution  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: The association of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) with metabolic syndrome in younger age groups has not been studied extensively and few population-based studies have included both sexes. Therefore we estimated the association of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) with the metabolic factors at different ages in men and women in a large population-based study. METHODS AND OBJECTIVES: In this cross-sectional study, clinical information and non-fasting blood samples including measurement of hsCRP from 4587 men and 5408 women 20 years and older in the HUNT study in Norway were used to study the association of components of the metabolic syndrome with levels of hsCRP, by sex and age group. RESULTS: All measured metabolic factors were associated with hsCRP. Among these factors, body mass index appeared to be the most strongly associated, and the strong positive association persisted also after adjustment for the other metabolic factors, with similar associations in women and men. The associations were generally somewhat stronger in younger than in older age groups. CONCLUSION: Metabolic factors, especially body mass index, have a relatively strong association with high-sensitivity C-reactive protein at all ages both in men and women.  
  Address Department of Public Health, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway. lars.e.laugsand@ntnu.no  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2047-4873 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:21775413 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 1542  
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Author Lie, A.; Engdahl, B.; Hoffman, H.J.; Li, C.-M.; Tambs, K. url  doi
  Title Occupational noise exposure, hearing loss, and notched audiograms in the HUNT Nord-Trondelag hearing loss study, 1996-1998 Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication The Laryngoscope Abbreviated Journal Laryngoscope  
  Volume 127 Issue 6 Pages 1442-1450  
  Keywords Adult; Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Audiometry/*statistics & numerical data; Female; Hearing Loss, Noise-Induced/*epidemiology/etiology; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; Noise, Occupational/*adverse effects; Norway/epidemiology; Occupational Diseases/*epidemiology/etiology; Occupational Exposure/*adverse effects; Prevalence; Sex Distribution; Young Adult; Noise; noise-induced hearing loss; notched audiograms; occupation  
  Abstract OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: To study the prevalence and usefulness of audiometric notches in the diagnosis of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). STUDY DESIGN: Audiograms and data on noise exposure from 23,297 men and 26,477 women, aged 20 to 101 years, from the Nord-Trondelag Hearing Loss Study, 1996-1998. METHODS: The prevalence of four types of audiometric notches (Coles, Hoffman, Wilson) and 4 kHz notch were computed in relation to occupational noise exposure, age, sex, and report of recurrent ear infections. RESULTS: The prevalence of notches in the 3 to 6 kHz range (Wilson, Hoffman, and Coles) ranged from 50% to 60% in subjects without occupational noise exposure, and 60% to 70% in the most occupationally noise-exposed men. The differences were statistically significant only for bilateral notches. For 4 kHz notches, the prevalence varied from 25% in occupationally nonexposed to 35% in the most occupationally exposed men, and the differences were statistically significant for both bilateral and unilateral notches. For women, the prevalence of notches was lower than in men, especially for 4 kHz notches, and the differences between occupationally noise exposed and nonexposed were smaller. Recreational exposure to high music was not associated with notched audiograms. CONCLUSIONS: The detection of bilateral notches and unilateral 4 kHz notches is of some value in diagnosing NIHL, especially in men. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4 Laryngoscope, 127:1442-1450, 2017.  
  Address Division of Mental Health, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0023-852X ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:27696439; PMCID:PMC5484347 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 1948  
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Author Linde, M.; Langnes, H.A.; Hagen, K.; Bergh, K.; Stovner, L.J. url  doi
  Title No increase in headache after previous intracranial infections: a historical cohort study (HUNT) Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication European Journal of Neurology : the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies Abbreviated Journal Eur J Neurol  
  Volume 19 Issue 2 Pages 324-331  
  Keywords Adult; Aged; Central Nervous System Infections/*complications; Cohort Studies; Female; Headache/diagnosis/*epidemiology/*etiology; Health Surveys; Humans; Longitudinal Studies; Male; Middle Aged; Prevalence; Questionnaires  
  Abstract BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Despite the absence of robust scientific evidence, it is today generally accepted that the acute headache typical for intracranial infections can develop into permanent headache complaints. This widespread concept was explored in the first, large, longitudinal, population-based study. METHODS: Data on confirmed exposure to intracranial infections amongst all adult inhabitants in a geographical area during a 20-year period were assembled from hospital records. Surviving individuals were later invited to the third Nord-Trondelag Health Survey (HUNT 3), where 39,690 (42%) of 94,194 invited inhabitants aged >/=20 years responded to a validated headache questionnaire. Using logistic regression, the 1-year prevalence of headache and its subtypes according to the diagnostic criteria of the International Headache Society was assessed and compared between those with and without previous confirmed intracranial infection. Age and sex were used as covariates. RESULTS: Overall, 43 participants were identified with earlier intracranial infection, whereof three had more than one infection: bacterial meningitis (n=19), lymphocytic meningitis (n=18), encephalitis (n=9), and brain abscess (n=1).The mean interval from infection to participation in HUNT 3 was 11.2 (range 1.5-19.7) years. There was no significant increase in the prevalence of headache (OR 1.10, 95% CI 0.58-2.07), its subtypes (migraine, or tension-type headache), or chronic daily headache (OR 1.85, 95% CI 0.45-7.68) amongst participants with previous intracranial infection compared with the surrounding population. CONCLUSIONS: This study challenges the existence of chronic post-bacterial meningitis headache and does not indicate the presence of other long-term headaches induced by intracranial infection.  
  Address Department of Neuroscience, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway. mattias.linde@ntnu.no  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
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  ISSN 1351-5101 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:21951375 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 1545  
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Author Lonnee-Hoffmann, R.A.; Salvesen, O.; Morkved, S.; Schei, B.   
  Title Self-reported pelvic organ prolapse surgery, prevalence, and nonobstetric risk factors: findings from the Nord Trondelag Health Study Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Int Urogynecol J Abbreviated Journal International urogynecology journal  
  Volume 26 Issue 3 Pages 407-414  
  Keywords Adult; Age Factors; Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Asthma/epidemiology; Body Mass Index; Constipation/epidemiology; Cross-Sectional Studies; Female; Health Surveys; Humans; Incidence; Lifting; Middle Aged; Norway/epidemiology; Occupations; Pelvic Organ Prolapse/*epidemiology/*surgery; Prevalence; Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology; Risk Factors; Self Report; Smoking/epidemiology  
  Abstract INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to assess prevalence and risk factors of self-reported pelvic organ prolapse (POP) surgery in a Nordic county. METHODS: We assessed cross-sectional data collection from participants in the Nord-Trondelag Health Study in 2006-2008. All women in the county >/=30 years were eligible, of whom 20,285 (50.3 %) responded by completing questionnaires and attending screening stations. Outcome measures were self-reported POP surgery, age at survey, sociodemographic factors, and information on selected risk factors for POP: self-reported smoking, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, constipation a decade prior, and measured body mass index (BMI). Descriptive statistics, Kaplan-Meier estimates, and multivariate logistic regression were used. Statistical significance was defined as p  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Department of Public Health and General Practice, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Po Editor  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Lonnee-Hoffmann2015a Serial