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Author Michelsen, T.M.; Dorum, A.; Cvancarova, M.; Liavaag, A.H.; Dahl, A.A. url  doi
  Title Association between hysterectomy with ovarian preservation and cardiovascular disease in a Norwegian population-based sample Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation Abbreviated Journal Gynecol Obstet Invest  
  Volume 75 Issue 1 Pages 61-67  
  Keywords Aged; Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use; Body Mass Index; Cardiovascular Diseases/*epidemiology; Case-Control Studies; Cross-Sectional Studies; Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology; Female; Health Surveys; Hormone Replacement Therapy/utilization; Humans; Hysterectomy/*statistics & numerical data; Middle Aged; Norway/epidemiology; Ovariectomy; Prevalence; Questionnaires; Risk Factors  
  Abstract BACKGROUND/AIMS: Some previous studies have reported that hysterectomy predicts increased prevalence of cardiovascular diseases, but the findings are disputed. We aimed to examine associations between hysterectomy and cardiovascular disease in a Norwegian cross-sectional health study. METHODS: The data were obtained from the population-based cross-sectional Nord-Trondelag Health Study (The HUNT-2 Study). Of 46,709 invited females, 35,280 (76%) participated; 939 (3%) reported hysterectomy without oophorectomy (exposed women). Each exposed woman was age-matched with four randomly chosen women (n = 3,756) without hysterectomy or oophorectomy. Oophorectomy and hysterectomy status was self-reported by the women. Hazard ratio for cardiovascular diseases was calculated by Cox regression analyses with hysterectomy as a time-dependent covariate. RESULTS: Median time since hysterectomy was 14 years (range 0-56 years). We calculated a significantly larger cumulative probability of cardiovascular diseases after hysterectomy with a hazard ratio of 1.92, 95% CI (1.51-2.38) after adjustments for cardiovascular risk factors (diabetes, age, use of hormonal replacement therapy and positive family history of myocardial infarction). CONCLUSION: Women had a significantly increased risk of cardiovascular diseases after hysterectomy compared to age-matched controls. Studies with longitudinal design and confirmed medical outcome data are needed.  
  Address Section for Obstetrics, Rikshospitalet, Women and Children's Division, Oslo University Hospital Rikshospitalet, Oslo, Norway. trond.melbye.michelsen @ rikshospitalet.no  
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  ISSN 0378-7346 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:23220872 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 1423  
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Author Moe, B.; Nilsen, T.I.   
  Title Cancer risk in people with diabetes: Does physical activity and adiposity modify the association? Prospective data from the HUNT Study, Norway Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication J Diabetes Complications Abbreviated Journal Journal of diabetes and its complications  
  Volume 29 Issue 2 Pages 176-179  
  Keywords *Adiposity; Adult; Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Body Mass Index; Cohort Studies; Diabetes Complications/epidemiology/*etiology/prevention & control; Female; Follow-Up Studies; Health Surveys; Humans; Incidence; Male; Middle Aged; Motor Activity; Neoplasms/complications/epidemiology/*etiology/prevention & control; Norway/epidemiology; Obesity/*physiopathology; Overweight/*physiopathology; Prevalence; Proportional Hazards Models; Prospective Studies; Risk; *Sedentary Lifestyle; Young Adult; Cancer risk; Diabetes; Epidemiology; Leisure time physical exercise  
  Abstract AIMS: To examine whether physical activity and adiposity modify the increased risk of cancer associated with diabetes. METHODS: We prospectively examined the association of diabetes and risk of cancer among 73,726 persons stratified by physical activity and body mass index (BMI). Adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated from Cox regression. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 22.0 years, 9572 people were diagnosed with incident cancer. There was no clear association between diabetes and cancer risk in those reporting high levels of physical activity (>/=2.0h per week) (HR 0.93; 95% CI: 0.70-1.24) or those with a normal weight (BMI  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Department of Public Health and General Practice, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Tr Editor  
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  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Moe2015b Serial 1847  
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Author Ness-Jensen, E.; Lindam, A.; Lagergren, J.; Hveem, K. url  doi
  Title Changes in prevalence, incidence and spontaneous loss of gastro-oesophageal reflux symptoms: a prospective population-based cohort study, the HUNT study Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Gut Abbreviated Journal Gut  
  Volume 61 Issue 10 Pages 1390-1397  
  Keywords Adult; Age Factors; Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Cohort Studies; Female; Follow-Up Studies; Gastroesophageal Reflux/drug therapy/*epidemiology; Health Surveys; Histamine H2 Antagonists/therapeutic use; Humans; Incidence; Logistic Models; Male; Middle Aged; Norway/epidemiology; Prevalence; Prospective Studies; Proton Pump Inhibitors/therapeutic use; Remission, Spontaneous; Self Report; Severity of Illness Index; Sex Factors  
  Abstract OBJECTIVE: Changes in the occurrence of gastro-oesophageal reflux symptoms (GORS) in the population remain uncertain. This study aimed to determine the prevalence changes, the incidence and the spontaneous loss of GORS. DESIGN: This population-based cohort study was conducted within the Nord-Trondelag Health Study (the HUNT study), a longitudinal series of population-based health surveys in Nord-Trondelag County, Norway. The study base encompassed all adult residents in the county, and the participants reported the degree of GORS during the previous 12 months. The number of participants included were 58,869 (64% response rate) in 1995-7 and 44,997 (49%) in 2006-9. Of these, 29,610 persons (61%) were prospectively followed up for an average of 11 years. RESULTS: Between 1995-7 and 2006-9, the prevalence of any, severe and at least weekly GORS increased by 30% (from 31.4% to 40.9%), 24% (from 5.4% to 6.7%) and 47% (from 11.6% to 17.1%), respectively. The average annual incidence of any and severe GORS was 3.07% and 0.23%, respectively. In women, but not men, the incidence of GORS increased with increasing age. The average annual spontaneous loss (not due to antireflux medication) of any and severe GORS was 2.32% and 1.22%, respectively. The spontaneous loss of GORS decreased with increasing age. CONCLUSION: Between 1995-7 and 2006-9 the prevalence of GORS increased substantially. At least weekly GORS increased by 47%. The average annual incidence of severe GORS was 0.23%, and the corresponding spontaneous loss was 1.22%. The incidence and spontaneous loss of GORS were influenced by sex and age.  
  Address HUNT Research Centre, Department of Public Health and General Practice, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Forskningsvegen 2, Levanger N-7600, Norway. eivind.ness-jensen@ntnu.no  
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  ISSN 0017-5749 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:22190483 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 1560  
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Author Prior, J.C.; Naess, M.; Langhammer, A.; Forsmo, S. url  doi
  Title Ovulation Prevalence in Women with Spontaneous Normal-Length Menstrual Cycles – A Population-Based Cohort from HUNT3, Norway Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication PLoS One Abbreviated Journal PloS one  
  Volume 10 Issue 8 Pages e0134473  
  Keywords HUNT3; Adult; Anovulation/blood/*epidemiology; Cohort Studies; Cross-Sectional Studies; Female; Humans; Luteal Phase; Menstrual Cycle; Middle Aged; Norway/epidemiology; *Ovulation; *Premenopause; Prevalence; Progesterone/blood  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Ovulatory menstrual cycles are essential for women's fertility and needed to prevent bone loss. There is a medical/cultural expectation that clinically normal menstrual cycles are inevitably ovulatory. Currently within the general population it is unknown the proportion of regular, normal-length menstrual cycles that are ovulatory. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine the population point prevalence of ovulation in premenopausal, normally menstruating women. The null hypothesis was that such cycles are ovulatory. METHODS: This is a single-cycle, cross-sectional, population-based study-a sub-study of the HUNT3 health study in the semi-rural county (Nord Trondelag) in mid-Norway. Participants included >3,700 spontaneously (no hormonal contraception) menstruating women, primarily Caucasian, ages 20-49.9 from that county. Participation rate was 51.9%. All reported the date previous flow started. A single, random serum progesterone level was considered ovulatory if >/=9.54 nmol/L on cycle days 14 to -3 days before usual cycle length (CL). RESULTS: Ovulation was assessed in 3,168 women mean age 41.7 (interquartile range, [IQR] 36.8 to 45.5), cycle length 28 days (d) (IQR 28 to 28) and body mass index (BMI) 26.3 kg/m2 (95% CI 26.1 to 26.4). Parity was 95.6%, 30% smoked, 61.3% exercised regularly and 18% were obese. 1,545 women with a serum progesterone level on cycle days 14 to -3 were presumed to be in the luteal phase. Of these, 63.3% of women had an ovulatory cycle (n = 978) and 37% (n = 567) were anovulatory. Women with/ without ovulation did not differ in age, BMI, cycle day, menarche age, cigarette use, physical activity, % obesity or self-reported health. There were minimal differences in parity (96.7% vs. 94.5%, P = 0.04) and major differences in progesterone level (24.5 vs. 3.8 nmol/L, P = 0.001). CONCLUSION: Anovulation in a random population occurs in over a third of clinically normal menstrual cycles.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Centre for Menstrual Cycle and Ovulation Research, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada Editor  
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  Notes Prior, Jerilynn CNaess, MaritLanghammer, ArnulfForsmo, SiriengResearch Support, Non-U.S. Gov't2015/08/21 06:00PLoS One. 2015 Aug 20;10(8):e0134473. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0134473. eCollection 2015. Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Prior2015 Serial 1855  
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Author Skaug, E.-A.; Aspenes, S.T.; Oldervoll, L.; Morkedal, B.; Vatten, L.; Wisloff, U.; Ellingsen, O. url  doi
  Title Age and gender differences of endothelial function in 4739 healthy adults: the HUNT3 Fitness Study Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication European Journal of Preventive Cardiology Abbreviated Journal Eur J Prev Cardiol  
  Volume 20 Issue 4 Pages 531-540  
  Keywords Adult; Age Factors; Aged; Aged, 80 and over; *Aging; Brachial Artery/*physiopathology/ultrasonography; Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology/*physiopathology/ultrasonography; Chi-Square Distribution; Endothelium, Vascular/*physiopathology/ultrasonography; Female; Health Surveys; Healthy Volunteers; Humans; Hyperemia/physiopathology; Linear Models; Male; Middle Aged; Norway/epidemiology; *Physical Fitness; Prevalence; Risk Factors; Sex Factors; *Vasodilation; Young Adult; Atherosclerosis; endothelial function; epidemiology; population  
  Abstract AIMS: Endothelial dysfunction is an important marker for prognosis in patients with coronary heart disease. However, there are no reference values for endothelial function in a healthy population. Our aim was to determine the distribution of flow-mediated dilation (FMD) values by gender and age in healthy adults. METHODS: FMD was measured by ultrasound during reactive hyperaemia in the brachial artery of 4739 adults aged 20-89 years, who were free from self-reported cardiovascular or pulmonary disease. Differences in FMD across age and gender were analysed by multiple linear regression. RESULTS: Total mean +/- SD FMD was 4.8 +/- 4.2%, with corresponding estimates of 4.3 +/- 3.9% for men and 5.3 +/- 4.5% for women (p < 0.001). In total, 17% had FMD </=0%, indicating endothelial dysfunction. FMD decreased with increasing age in both genders up to 70 years for men and 80 for women (p < 0.001). In women, age-related decline in FMD was steepest after age 45; in men, a steady decline after age 30. In men 80 years and older, FMD was higher than in men aged 50-79 years. CONCLUSIONS: The distribution of FMD in this study is representative of the respective age and gender groups of a healthy population and may be a useful reference for future studies. The high proportion of endothelial dysfunction came as a surprise. Its age and gender distribution suggest that FMD </=0% precedes cardiovascular disease and that it may be a powerful non-invasive biomarker for identifying high-risk individuals.  
  Address Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2047-4873 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:22456692 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 1575  
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Author Solhaug, H.I.; Romuld, E.B.; Romild, U.; Stordal, E. url  doi
  Title Increased prevalence of depression in cohorts of the elderly: an 11-year follow-up in the general population – the HUNT study Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication International Psychogeriatrics / IPA Abbreviated Journal Int Psychogeriatr  
  Volume 24 Issue 1 Pages 151-158  
  Keywords Age Factors; Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Cross-Sectional Studies; Depression/*epidemiology; Female; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; Norway/epidemiology; Prevalence; Psychiatric Status Rating Scales; Recurrence; Risk Factors  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Depression is a common disorder in late life. As the elderly population continues to grow worldwide, depression is also likely to become an increasing health problem. The aim of this study was to examine changes in prevalence of depression in various age cohorts over an 11-year period. METHODS: This study involved two cross-sectional studies (HUNT 2 and HUNT 3) of all adult inhabitants of the Norwegian county of Nord-Trondelag with an 11 year-interval between the two studies. The participants aged 45 years or above at HUNT 2 and with a valid depression rating at both HUNT 2 (baseline) and HUNT 3 (follow-up) (N = 16517), were included and divided into five-year age cohorts. Depression was measured by the depression subscale of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-D). RESULTS: A significant increase in depression was found in all age cohorts from 76 years at follow-up, with the greatest increase (9.6%) in the oldest age cohort (86-90 years at follow-up). The incidence of depression is increasing with age, with over 10% new cases in all age cohorts aged 81 years and above at follow-up. About 5% of the participants in all age cohorts reported depression at both measure points, and there is a decrease in recovery from depression from baseline to follow-up with increasing age. CONCLUSIONS: We found increased prevalence of depression and a large number of new cases of depression in the oldest age cohorts.  
  Address Department of Psychiatry, Namsos Hospital, Namsos, Norway. hanne.solhaug@hnt.no  
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  ISSN 1041-6102 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:21767455 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 1577  
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Author Sorgjerd, E.P.; Skorpen, F.; Kvaloy, K.; Midthjell, K.; Grill, V. url  doi
  Title Time dynamics of autoantibodies are coupled to phenotypes and add to the heterogeneity of autoimmune diabetes in adults: the HUNT study, Norway Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Diabetologia Abbreviated Journal Diabetologia  
  Volume 55 Issue 5 Pages 1310-1318  
  Keywords Adult; Aged; Autoantibodies/*blood/*immunology; C-Peptide/blood/immunology; Cation Transport Proteins/immunology; Cross-Sectional Studies; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/*blood/genetics/*immunology; Female; Glutamate Decarboxylase/immunology; HLA Antigens/genetics/immunology; Haplotypes; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; Norway/epidemiology; Prediabetic State/blood/genetics/immunology; Prevalence; Receptor-Like Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases, Class 8/immunology; Risk  
  Abstract AIMS: The aetiology of latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA), assessed by autoimmune markers, is insufficiently clarified. We cross-sectionally investigated the prevalence and prospectively the prediabetic and postdiabetic presence of antibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase (GADA), insulinoma-associated protein 2 and zinc transporter 8 in LADA and in type 1 diabetes. METHODS: We included 208 'classic' type 1, 161 LADA and 302 type 2 diabetic cases from the second (HUNT2: 1995-1997) and third (HUNT3: 2006-2008) Nord-Trondelag health surveys. Prospective data were available for 59 type 1, 44 LADA and 302 type 2 diabetic cases followed from HUNT2 to HUNT3. From HUNT3, 24 type 1 diabetic and 31 LADA incident cases were available. RESULTS: Cross-sectionally, 90% of LADA cases were positive for only one antibody (10% multiple-antibodypositive). Prospectively, 59% of GADA-positive LADA patients in HUNT2 were no longer positive in HUNT3. LADA patients who became negative possessed less frequently risk HLA haplotypes and were phenotypically more akin to those with type 2 diabetes than to those who stayed positive. Still, those losing positivity differed from those with type 2 diabetes by lower C-peptide levels (p = 0.009). Of incident LADA cases in HUNT3, 64% were already antibody-positive in HUNT2, i.e. before diabetes diagnosis. These incident LADA cases were phenotypically more akin to type 1 diabetes than were those who did not display positivity in HUNT2. CONCLUSION/INTERPRETATION: The pattern of antibodies, the postdiabetic loss or persistence as well as the prediabetic absence or presence of antibodies influence LADA phenotypes. Time-dependent presence or absence of antibodies adds new modalities to the heterogeneity of LADA.  
  Address Department of Cancer Research and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, NTNU, HUNT Research Centre, Forskningsveien 2, 7600 Levanger, Norway. elin.pettersen@ntnu.no  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0012-186X ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:22297581 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 1579  
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Author Sorgjerd, E.P.; Skorpen, F.; Kvaloy, K.; Midthjell, K.; Grill, V. url  doi
  Title Prevalence of ZnT8 antibody in relation to phenotype and SLC30A8 polymorphism in adult autoimmune diabetes: results from the HUNT study, Norway Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Autoimmunity Abbreviated Journal Autoimmunity  
  Volume 46 Issue 1 Pages 74-79  
  Keywords Age of Onset; Cation Transport Proteins/blood/genetics/*immunology; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/blood/epidemiology/*immunology; Female; Glutamate Decarboxylase/blood/*immunology; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; Norway/epidemiology; Phenotype; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide; Prevalence; Receptor-Like Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases, Class 8/blood/genetics/*immunology; Statistics, Nonparametric  
  Abstract Zinc transporter 8 (ZnT8), a product of the SLC30A8 gene, is a target-antigen in autoimmune diabetes. Associations between ZnT8 antibody (ZnT8A), phenotype and the genetic variant rs13266634 in the SLC30A8 gene have primarily been studied in patients with young-onset diabetes. We explored such associations in adult-onset autoimmune diabetes identified from the all-population based Nord-Trondelag health Study (HUNT) ZnT8A (assayed by a fusion probe of C-terminal Arg325 and Trp325), and antibodies against glutamic decarboxylase (GADA) and tyrosine phosphatase-like protein insulinoma antigen-2 (IA-2A) were analysed in 266 subjects classified as having adult-onset autoimmune diabetes ( >/= 25 years of age at diagnosis). Of these, 161 subjects fulfilled the criteria of latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA), whereas 105 subjects were termed “classical” type 1 diabetes. Ten out of 161 LADA (6.2%) and 23 out of 105 adult-onset “classical” type 1 diabetic patients (22%) were ZnT8A positive. Adult-onset diabetic subjects positive both for GADA and IA-2A (n = 17), had lower waist circumference (p = 0.024) and higher fasting glucose levels (p = 0.023) than those positive both for GADA and ZnT8A (n = 13). Genotyping results of rs13266634 (available in 178 adult-onset diabetic subjects), showed a tendency for association between ZnT8A positivity and the TT- and CC genotypes of SNP rs13266634 (p = 0.101) using the standard cut-off level of 0.06ai, and a significant association at a lower cut-off level of 0.01ai (p = 0.005). We conclude that ZnT8A positivity in a population of adult-onset autoimmune diabetes is a less strong marker of autoimmunity than IA-2A. Further, positivity could be influenced by polymorphism of the SLC30A8 gene.  
  Address Department of Cancer Research and Molecular Medicine, The Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Levanger, Norway. elin.pettersen@ntnu.no  
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  ISSN 0891-6934 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:23061550 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 1400  
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Author Stray-Pedersen, M.; Helsing, R.M.; Gibbons, L.; Cormick, G.; Holmen, T.L.; Vik, T.; Belizan, J.M. url  doi
  Title Weight status and hypertension among adolescent girls in Argentina and Norway: data from the ENNyS and HUNT studies Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication BMC Public Health Abbreviated Journal BMC Public Health  
  Volume 9 Issue Pages 398  
  Keywords Adolescent Argentina/epidemiology Body Mass Index Female Humans Hypertension/complications/*epidemiology Norway/epidemiology Obesity/complications/*epidemiology Odds Ratio Overweight/*epidemiology Prevalence Young-HUNT HUNT1  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: To provide data on overweight, obesity and hypertension among adolescent girls in Norway and Argentina. METHODS: Data was obtained from two population-based, cross-sectional and descriptive studies containing anthropometric and blood pressure measurements of 15 to 18 year old girls. The study included 2,156 adolescent girls from Norway evaluated between 1995 and 1997, and 669 from Argentina evaluated between 2004 and 2005. RESULTS: Around 15% of adolescent girls in Norway and 19% in Argentina are overweight or obese. Body mass index (BMI) distribution in these two countries is similar, with a low percentage (< 1%) of girls classified as thin. Norwegian adolescents show a height mean value 8 cm taller than the Argentinean. Obesity is strongly associated with systolic hypertension in both populations, with odds ratios of 11.4 [1.6; 82.0] and 28.3 [11.8; 67.7] in Argentina and Norway, respectively. No direct association between BMI and systolic hypertension was found, and only extreme BMI values (above 80th – 90th percentile) were associated with hypertension. CONCLUSION: This study confirms a current world health problem by showing the high prevalence of obesity in adolescents and its association with hypertension in two different countries (one developed and one in transition).  
  Address Department of Mother & Child Health Research, Institute for Clinical Effectiveness and Health Policy (IECS), Buenos Aires, Argentina. strayped@gmail.com  
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  Language eng Summary Language Original Title  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2009/11/03  
  ISSN 1471-2458 (Electronic) 1471-2458 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Stray-Pedersen, Marit Helsing, Ragnhild M Gibbons, Luz Cormick, Gabriela Holmen, Turid L Vik, Torstein Belizan, Jose M eng Comparative Study England 2009/11/03 06:00 BMC Public Health. 2009 Oct 30;9:398. doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-9-398. Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ 1983 Serial 1344  
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Author Sundling, V.; Platou, C.G.P.; Jansson, R.W.; Bertelsen, G.; Wollo, E.; Gulbrandsen, P. url  doi
  Title Retinopathy and visual impairment in diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance and normal glucose tolerance: the Nord-Trondelag Health Study (the HUNT study) Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Acta Ophthalmologica Abbreviated Journal Acta Ophthalmol  
  Volume 90 Issue 3 Pages 237-243  
  Keywords Adult; Aged; Blood Glucose/metabolism; Cross-Sectional Studies; Diabetes Mellitus/*epidemiology/physiopathology; Diabetic Retinopathy/*epidemiology/physiopathology; Female; Glucose Intolerance/*epidemiology/physiopathology; Glucose Tolerance Test; Humans; Hyperglycemia/*epidemiology/physiopathology; Male; Middle Aged; Norway/epidemiology; Prevalence; Refraction, Ocular/physiology; Risk Factors; Vision Disorders/*epidemiology/physiopathology; Visual Acuity/physiology; Visually Impaired Persons/statistics & numerical data; Young Adult  
  Abstract PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to describe the prevalence of visual impairment and retinopathy and to investigate risk factors for retinopathy in persons with diabetes, screen-detected diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance and normal glucose tolerance in a subpopulation of the HUNT study. METHODS: We used a sample (n = 163) from a population-based screening survey of hyperglycaemia, undertaken in 2004-2005 in Verdal, Norway. Baseline information was accessible through the second Nord-Trondelag Health Study (HUNT2), 1995-97. Data collection was made in 2005 and included patient history, refraction, visual acuity, cataract assessment and single-field, nonmydriatic retinal photography. Retinal photographs were graded independently by two graders blinded to patient information. Data were analysed with standard statistical methods, and p < 0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: In all, 126 (77%) persons participated, 55% were women. The mean (SD) age was 59 (+/- 14) years. Four (3%) had correctable visual impairment, and none were visually impaired. Retinal photographs were gradable for both eyes in 109 (87%) participants. The prevalence of retinopathy was 11% in persons with known diabetes, 4% in persons with screen-detected diabetes, 3% in persons with impaired glucose tolerance and 10% in persons with normal glucose tolerance. Retinopathy was not associated with known history of diabetes or current glycaemic status. Nonfasting plasma glucose (in 1995-97) was an independent risk factor for retinopathy (in 2005), OR (95% CI) 1.5 (1.01, 2.13), p = 0.046. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in persons with diabetes in this study was low. Appropriate optical correction and regular eye examination can prevent unnecessary visual impairment in both persons with and without diabetes.  
  Address Department of Optometry and Visual Science, Buskerud University College, Kongsberg, Norway. vibeke.sundling@hibu.no  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1755-375X ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:20809910 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 1581  
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