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Author (up) Bjorngaard, J.H.; Gunnell, D.; Elvestad, M.B.; Davey Smith, G.; Skorpen, F.; Krokan, H.; Vatten, L.; Romundstad, P. url  doi
  Title The causal role of smoking in anxiety and depression: a Mendelian randomization analysis of the HUNT study Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Psychological Medicine Abbreviated Journal Psychol Med  
  Volume 43 Issue 4 Pages 711-719  
  Keywords Adult; Alleles; Anxiety Disorders/*epidemiology/genetics; Body Mass Index; Causality; Chromosomes, Human, Pair 15/genetics; Depressive Disorder/*epidemiology/genetics; Female; Genetic Predisposition to Disease/epidemiology/genetics; Humans; Logistic Models; Male; *Mendelian Randomization Analysis; Middle Aged; Norway/epidemiology; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics; Pregnancy; Prevalence; Psychiatric Status Rating Scales; Receptors, Nicotinic/*genetics; Self Report; Smoking/*epidemiology/genetics/psychology; Young Adult  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking is strongly associated with mental illness but the causal direction of the association is uncertain. We investigated the causal relationship between smoking and symptoms of anxiety and depression in the Norwegian HUNT study using the rs1051730 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) variant located in the nicotine acetylcholine receptor gene cluster on chromosome 15 as an instrumental variable for smoking phenotypes. Among smokers, this SNP is robustly associated with smoking quantity and nicotine dependence. Method In total, 53 601 participants were genotyped for the rs1051730 SNP and provided information on smoking habits and symptoms of anxiety and depression using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). RESULTS: Self-reported smoking was positively associated with the prevalence of both anxiety and depression, and the measured polymorphism was positively associated with being a current smoker and the number of cigarettes smoked in current smokers. In the sample as a whole, risk of anxiety increased with each affected T allele [odds ratio (OR) 1.06, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02-1.09, p = 0.002] but there was no association with depression (p = 0.31). However, we found no clear association of the polymorphism with either anxiety (OR 1.03, 95% CI 0.97-1.09, p = 0.34) or depression (OR 1.02, 95% CI 0.95-1.09, p = 0.62) among smokers. CONCLUSIONS: As there was no association of the smoking-related rs1051730 SNP with anxiety and depression among smokers, the results suggest that smoking is not a cause of anxiety and depression.  
  Address Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway. johan.h.bjorngaard@ntnu.no  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0033-2917 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:22687325 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 1465  
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Author (up) Brunes, A.; Flanders, W.D.; Augestad, L.B. url  doi
  Title Self-reported visual impairment, physical activity and all-cause mortality: The HUNT Study Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Scandinavian Journal of Public Health Abbreviated Journal Scand J Public Health  
  Volume 45 Issue 1 Pages 33-41  
  Keywords Aged; Aged, 80 and over; *Cause of Death; *Exercise; Female; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; Norway/epidemiology; Proportional Hazards Models; Prospective Studies; Risk Assessment; *Self Report; Vision Disorders/*epidemiology; *All-cause mortality; *HUNT study; *physical activity; *prospective cohort study; *self-reported; *visual impairment  
  Abstract AIMS: To examine the associations of self-reported visual impairment and physical activity (PA) with all-cause mortality. METHODS: This prospective cohort study included 65,236 Norwegians aged 20 years who had participated in the Nord-Trondelag Health Study (HUNT2, 1995-1997). Of these participants, 11,074 (17.0%) had self-reported visual impairment (SRVI). The participants' data were linked to Norway's Cause of Death Registry and followed throughout 2012. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were assessed using Cox regression analyses with age as the time-scale. The Cox models were fitted for restricted age groups (<60, 60-84, 85 years). RESULTS: After a mean follow-up of 14.5 years, 13,549 deaths were identified. Compared with adults with self-reported no visual impairment, the multivariable hazard ratios among adults with SRVI were 2.47 (95% CI 1.94-3.13) in those aged <60 years, 1.22 (95% CI 1.13-1.33) in those aged 60-84 years and 1.05 (95% CI 0.96-1.15) in those aged 85 years. The strength of the associations remained similar or stronger after additionally controlling for PA. When examining the joint associations, the all-cause mortality risk of SRVI was higher for those who reported no PA than for those who reported weekly hours of PA. We found a large, positive departure from additivity in adults aged <60 years, whereas the departure from additivity was small for the other age groups. CONCLUSIONS: Adults with SRVI reporting no PA were associated with an increased all-cause mortality risk. The associations attenuated with age.  
  Address 4 Department of Visual Impairment, Statped Mid-Norway, Norway  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1403-4948 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:27913690 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 1893  
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Author (up) de Ridder, K.; Pape, K.; Krokstad, S.; Bjorngaard, J.H. url  doi
  Title Health in adolescence and subsequent receipt of social insurance benefits – The HUNT Study Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen Abbreviated Journal Tidsskrift for den Norske laegeforening  
  Volume 135 Issue 10 Pages 942-948  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Cost of Illness; Female; Follow-Up Studies; *Health Status; Health Surveys; Humans; Insurance Benefits/statistics & numerical data; Insurance, Disability/*statistics & numerical data; Male; Norway; Registries; Risk Assessment; Risk Factors; Self Report; Sex Factors; Sick Leave; Social Security/*statistics & numerical data; Time Factors; Young Adult; Young-HUNT; HUNT2  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Long-term illness and work incapacity in young adulthood has consequences for both the individual and for society. The purpose of the study was to investigate the association between adolescent health and receipt of long-term sickness and disability benefits for young adults in their twenties. MATERIAL AND METHOD: An adolescent population of 8949 school students (aged 13-21 years) assessed their own health in the Young-HUNT1 Study (1995-1997). Health was measured by means of a questionnaire enquiring about chronic somatic illnesses, somatic symptoms, symptoms of anxiety and depression, sleep disturbance, poor concentration, self-reported health and smoking, and by measuring height and weight. Information about receipt of long-term benefits was retrieved from the FD-Trygd registry for the period 1998-2008 and defined as receipt of sickness benefit (>180 days/year), medical/vocational rehabilitation benefit and disability pension in the age group 20-29 years. We investigated the relationship between adolescent health and long-term social insurance benefits with logistic regression, adjusted for sex, age, follow-up time, mother's education and family composition. Siblings with different exposure and outcome were investigated to adjust for all familial factors shared by siblings. RESULTS: Each of the health measures was associated with an increased risk of long-term benefit. For example, adolescents who reported one or more somatic illnesses or poor concentration had a 5.4 and 3.4 percentage point higher risk, respectively, of receiving long-term benefits at the age of 20-29 years than adolescents who did not report somatic illness or poor concentration. Moreover the risk increased with an increase in the number of health problems. Sibling analyses supported these associations. INTERPRETATION: Health in adolescence is an indicator of increased vulnerability in the transition to the labour market. Preventing health selection during this transition should be a priority for welfare policy.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Institutt for samfunnsmedisin Norges teknisk-naturvitenskapelige universitet og Folkehelseinstitutt, Editor  
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  Notes de Ridder, KarinPape, KristineKrokstad, SteinarBjorngaard, Johan HakonengnorNorway2015/06/04 06:00Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2015 Jun 2;135(10):942-8. doi: 10.4045/tidsskr.14.0261. eCollection 2015 Jun 2. Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ deRidder2015 Serial 1802  
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Author (up) De Ridder, K.A.A.; Pape, K.; Johnsen, R.; Westin, S.; Holmen, T.L.; Bjorngaard, J.H. url  doi
  Title School dropout: a major public health challenge: a 10-year prospective study on medical and non-medical social insurance benefits in young adulthood, the Young-HUNT 1 Study (Norway) Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health Abbreviated Journal J Epidemiol Community Health  
  Volume 66 Issue 11 Pages 995-1000  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Female; Follow-Up Studies; Health Status; Humans; Insurance, Health/*statistics & numerical data/utilization; Logistic Models; Male; Norway; Prospective Studies; Public Health; Risk Factors; Self Report; Social Problems; Social Security/*statistics & numerical data/utilization; *Socioeconomic Factors; Student Dropouts/*statistics & numerical data; Young Adult  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: School and work participation in adolescence and young adulthood are important for future health and socioeconomic status. The authors studied the association between self-rated health in adolescents, high school dropout and long-term receipt of medical and non-medical social insurance benefits in young adulthood. METHODS: Self-rated health in adolescence was assessed in 8795 adolescents participating in the Norwegian Young-HUNT Study (1995-1997). Linkages to the National Education Database and the National Insurance Administration allowed identification of school dropout and receipt of long-term medical and non-medical benefits during a 10-year follow-up (1998-2007). The data were explored by descriptive statistics and by multinomial logistic regression. RESULTS: A total of 17% was registered as being high school dropouts at age 24. The predicted 5-year risk of receiving benefits between ages 24-28 was 21% (95% CI 20% to 23%). High school dropouts had a 5-year risk of receiving benefits of 44% (95% CI 41 to 48) compared with 16% (95% CI 15 to 17) in those who completed high school (adjusted for self-rated health, parental education and sex). There was a 27% school dropout rate in adolescents who reported poor health compared with 16% in those who reported good health. The predicted 5-year risk of receiving any long-term social insurance benefits in adolescents who reported poor health was 33% (95% CI 30 to 37) compared with 20% (95% CI 19 to 21) in those who reported good health. CONCLUSION: The strong association between poor self-rated health in adolescence, high school dropout and reduced work integration needs attention and suggests preventive measures on an individual as well as on a societal level.  
  Address Department of Public Health and General Practice, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway. karin.de.ridder@ntnu.no  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0143-005X ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:22315238 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 1518  
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Author (up) Derdikman-Eiron, R.; Hjemdal, O.; Lydersen, S.; Bratberg, G.H.; Indredavik, M.S. url  doi
  Title Adolescent predictors and associates of psychosocial functioning in young men and women: 11 year follow-up findings from the Nord-Trondelag Health Study Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Scandinavian Journal of Psychology Abbreviated Journal Scand J Psychol  
  Volume 54 Issue 2 Pages 95-101  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Anxiety/psychology; Depression/psychology; Female; Follow-Up Studies; Health Surveys; Humans; Male; *Mental Health; *Personal Satisfaction; Questionnaires; *Self Concept; Self Report; Sex Factors; *Social Adjustment; *Social Support; Socioeconomic Factors  
  Abstract The aim of this paper was to investigate whether psychosocial functioning in adulthood (e.g., friends support, cohabitation, community connectedness and work satisfaction) could be predicted by mental health, subjective well-being, social relations and behavior problems in adolescence, and whether gender was a moderator in these associations. Data were obtained from a major population-based Norwegian study, the Nord-Trondelag Health Study (HUNT), in which 517 men and 819 women completed an extensive self-report questionnaires at baseline (mean age 14.4 years) and at follow-up (mean age 26.9 years). Community connectedness as well as work satisfaction were predicted by subjective well-being. Cohabitation was predicted by male gender and frequency of meeting friends in adolescence, and friends support was predicted by frequency of meeting friends. Gender had a minor effect as a moderator. Frequency of meeting friends and subjective well-being seemed to be the strongest adolescent predictors of psychosocial functioning in young adulthood. These findings may have implications both for prevention and intervention in adolescence, as well as for future research.  
  Address The Regional Centre for Child and Adolescent Mental Health, RBUP, Faculty of Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway. ruth.derdikman@ntnu.no  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0036-5564 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:23350873 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 1454  
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Author (up) Engdahl, B.; Tambs, K.; Hoffman, H.J. url  doi
  Title Otoacoustic emissions, pure-tone audiometry, and self-reported hearing Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication International Journal of Audiology Abbreviated Journal Int J Audiol  
  Volume 52 Issue 2 Pages 74-82  
  Keywords Acoustic Stimulation; Adult; Age Factors; Aged; Aged, 80 and over; *Audiometry, Pure-Tone; Auditory Threshold; *Disability Evaluation; Factor Analysis, Statistical; Female; *Hearing; Hearing Disorders/*diagnosis/physiopathology/psychology; Humans; Linear Models; Male; Middle Aged; Multivariate Analysis; Otoacoustic Emissions, Spontaneous; Predictive Value of Tests; Principal Component Analysis; *Self Report; Sex Factors; Young Adult  
  Abstract OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to describe the association between otoacoustic emissions (OAEs), pure-tone thresholds, and self-reported hearing disability. DESIGN: A population-based cohort of 4202 adults was examined with air conduction pure-tone audiometry, transient OAE (TEOAE), and distortion product OAE (DPOAE). Participants completed 15 self-report items on hearing disability. RESULTS: Correlation coefficients in the range of 0.3 to 0.5 were observed between OAE (TEOAE, and DPOAE) and self-reported hearing depending on age and sex. Pure-tone average hearing thresholds generally predicted self-reported hearing slightly better than did the OAE measures. Adding TEOAE and DPOAE as predictors in a multivariate model together with the scores from pure-tone audiometry did not predict self-reported hearing better than did pure-tone audiometry alone. The relationship between OAE and self-reported hearing was stronger in men than in women and became more manifest with age, a trend also stronger in men. CONCLUSIONS: OAEs were shown to be a valid measure of self-reported hearing disability of the general population but added no additional information to what pure-tone hearing thresholds had already captured.  
  Address Division of Mental Health, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway. bo.engdahl@fhi.no  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1499-2027 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:23216196 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 1453  
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Author (up) Enmarker, I.; Hellzen, O.; Ekker, K.; Berg, A.G. url  doi
  Title Depression in older cat and dog owners: the Nord-Trondelag Health Study (HUNT)-3 Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Aging Ment Health Abbreviated Journal Aging & mental health  
  Volume 19 Issue 4 Pages 347-352  
  Keywords Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Aging/psychology; Analysis of Variance; Animals; *Bonding, Human-Pet; Cats; Cross-Sectional Studies; Depression/*epidemiology/*psychology; Dogs; Female; Humans; Loneliness/psychology; Male; Norway/epidemiology; Pets; Self Report; Sex Distribution; HUNT3  
  Abstract OBJECTIVE: Depression constitutes a major health problem for older people, in this study defined as people 65 years of age and older. Previous studies have shown that mental health among older people who live with animals could be improved, but contrary results exist as well. Therefore, the objective of the present population study was to compare the self-rated depression symptoms of both female and male non-pet owners, cat owners, and dog owners. METHOD: The participants in this cross-sectional population study included 12,093 people between the ages of 65 and 101. One thousand and eighty three participants owned cats and 814 participants owned dogs. Self-rated depression symptoms were measured using HADS-D, the scale of self-administered depression symptoms in HADS (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale). RESULTS: The main results showed higher mean values on the HADS-D for cat owners than for both dog and non-pet owners. The latter group rated their depression symptoms the lowest. When dividing the ratings into low- and high-depression symptoms, the logistic regression analysis showed that it was more likely that males who owned cats perceived lower depression symptoms than females who owned cats. No interactions were recognized between pet ownership and subjective general health status, loneliness, or marital status. CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide a window into the differences in health factors between older females and males who own cats and dogs in rural areas. RESULTS from population studies like ours might increase the available knowledge base when using cats and dogs in clinical environments such as nursing homes.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication a Department of Health Sciences , Nord-Trondelag University College , Steinkjer , Norway. Editor  
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  Notes Enmarker, IngelaHellzen, OveEkker, KnutBerg, Anne-Grethe TengResearch Support, Non-U.S. Gov'tEngland2014/07/06 06:00Aging Ment Health. 2015;19(4):347-52. doi: 10.1080/13607863.2014.933310. Epub 2014 Jul 3. Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Enmarker2015 Serial 1806  
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Author (up) Grunseit, A.C.; Chau, J.Y.; Rangul, V.; Holmen, T.L.; Bauman, A. url  doi
  Title Patterns of sitting and mortality in the Nord-Trondelag health study (HUNT) Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication The International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity Abbreviated Journal Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act  
  Volume 14 Issue 1 Pages 8  
  Keywords Adult; Aged; Cardiovascular Diseases/*mortality; *Cause of Death; *Exercise; Female; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; *Posture; Proportional Hazards Models; Prospective Studies; Risk Factors; *Sedentary Lifestyle; Self Report; Young Adult; *Cardiovascular disease; *Epidemiology; *Mortality; *Sedentary behaviour  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Current evidence concerning sedentary behaviour and mortality risk has used single time point assessments of sitting. Little is known about how changes in sitting levels over time affect subsequent mortality risk. AIM: To examine the associations between patterns of sitting time assessed at two time points 11 years apart and risk of all-cause and cardio-metabolic disease mortality. METHODS: Participants were 25,651 adults aged > =20 years old from the Nord-Trondelag Health Study with self-reported total sitting time in 1995-1997 (HUNT2) and 2006-2008 (HUNT3). Four categories characterised patterns of sitting: (1) low at HUNT2/ low at HUNT3, 'consistently low sitting'; (2) low at HUNT2/high at HUNT3, 'increased sitting'; (3) high at HUNT2/low at HUNT3, 'reduced sitting'; and (4) high at HUNT2 /high at HUNT3, 'consistently high sitting'. Associations of sitting pattern with all-cause and cardio-metabolic disease mortality were analysed using Cox regression adjusted for confounders. RESULTS: Mean follow-up was 6.2 years (158880 person-years); 1212 participants died. Compared to 'consistently low sitting', adjusted hazard ratios for all-cause mortality were 1.51 (95% CI: 1.28-2.78), 1.03 (95% CI: 0.88-1.20), and 1.26 (95% CI: 1.06-1.51) for 'increased sitting', 'reduced sitting' and 'consistently high sitting' respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Examining patterns of sitting over time augments single time-point analyses of risk exposures associated with high sitting time. Whilst sitting habits can be stable over a long period, life events (e.g., changing jobs, retiring or illness) may influence sitting trajectories and therefore sitting-attributable risk. Reducing sitting may yield mortality risks comparable to a stable low-sitting pattern.  
  Address Department of Public health and General practice, HUNT Research Centre, Faculty of Medicine, NTNU – Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Levanger, Norway  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1479-5868 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:28122625; PMCID:PMC5267382 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 1918  
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Author (up) Hatlen, P.; Langhammer, A.; Forsmo, S.; Carlsen, S.M.; Amundsen, T. url  doi
  Title Bone mass density, fracture history, self-reported osteoporosis as proxy variables for estrogen and the risk of non-small-cell lung cancer--a population based cohort study, the HUNT study: are proxy variables friends or faults? Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Lung Cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands) Abbreviated Journal Lung Cancer  
  Volume 81 Issue 1 Pages 39-46  
  Keywords Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Body Mass Index; *Bone Density; Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/*epidemiology/etiology; Cohort Studies; Estrogens/metabolism; Female; Fractures, Bone/complications/*epidemiology; Humans; Logistic Models; Lung Diseases/etiology; Lung Neoplasms/*epidemiology/etiology; Male; Norway/epidemiology; Odds Ratio; Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal/complications/*epidemiology; Risk Factors; Self Report  
  Abstract Lung cancer has the highest mortality of all cancers. Patients with early stage disease have the best cure rates and that emphasizes the importance of early detection. About half of all non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) are estrogen receptor positive. The impact of estrogen and its receptors for NSCLC carcinogenesis has been studied but is still unclear. Low estrogen levels are associated with osteoporosis. We hypothesize that low bone mineral density (BMD), a positive history of fracture or self-reported osteoporosis, used as a proxy variable for life time estrogen exposure, are associated with a low incidence of NSCLC. We analyzed data from a cohort study, the Nord-Trondelag Health Study 2 (1995-1997) linked to the Norwegian Cancer Registry. Using the logistic regression model we calculated the odds ratio (OR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI) for the risk of NSCLC for the three proxy variables, stratified by sex. Participants older than 50 years of age, having measured bone density (N = 18,156), having answered the questions on self-reported fracture (N = 37,883) and osteoporosis (N = 25,701) and known body mass index (BMI) (N = 29,291), were evaluated for inclusion. In 6996 participants all these information was available in addition to tobacco use, and in women also hormonal replacement therapy (HRT). Lung function (FEV1 percent of predicted) was included in a sensitivity analysis. We identified 132 (1.9%) cases of NSCLC, 59 (1.2%) and 73 (3.3%) cases in women and men, respectively. Low BMD was associated with a higher risk of NSCLC, OR: 2.38, 95% CI: 1.09-5.18 and OR: 2.67, 95% CI: 1.39-5.16 in women and men, respectively. No association was found between the two other proxy variables and the risk of NSCLC. Inclusion of lung function in the model did not change the results. Contrary to our hypothesis, women and men with low BMD had a higher risk for NSCLC. In addition the study demonstrates that the risk depends on which proxy variable was chosen, and we may ask: are proxy variables reliable?  
  Address Department of Thoracic Medicine, St. Olavs Hospital HF, 7006 Trondheim, Norway. Peter.Hatlen@ntnu.no  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0169-5002 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:23618654 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 1446  
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Author (up) Haugland, S.H.; Holmen, T.L.; Ravndal, E.; Bratberg, G.H. url  doi
  Title Parental alcohol misuse and hazardous drinking among offspring in a general teenage population: gender-specific findings from the Young-HUNT 3 study Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication BMC Public Health Abbreviated Journal BMC Public Health  
  Volume 13 Issue Pages 1140  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adolescent Behavior/*psychology; Adult; Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology/*psychology; Alcoholic Intoxication/epidemiology; Fathers/*psychology; Female; Humans; Male; Mothers/*psychology; Norway/epidemiology; *Risk-Taking; Self Report; Sex Factors; Young Adult  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Parental alcohol misuse may negatively affect drinking behaviours among offspring, but it is unclear to what extent influences are gender-specific and dependent upon the actual drinking behaviour measured. The aim of this study was to investigate whether hazardous drinking among Norwegian teenage boys (N = 2538) and girls (N = 2494) was associated with paternal and maternal alcohol misuse (CAGE). METHODS: Definitions of hazardous drinking among offspring were based on self-reported alcohol consumption (in litres a year), frequency of drinking, and frequency of drunkenness. Based on this information, two composite measures of hazardous drinking were also constructed. Cross-sectional data from the Norwegian Young-HUNT 3 survey (2006-2008) were linked to information from biological parents who participated in the adult part of the HUNT study. RESULTS: Logistic regression analyses showed that both boys and girls with alcohol misusing fathers were more likely to report high levels of alcohol intake compared to others of the same age and gender. This was contrary to boys with misusing mothers, who reported less alcohol consumption than other boys. Among girls, but not boys, high frequency of drunkenness was associated with maternal as well as paternal misuse. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that adolescent hazardous drinking is more prevalent among boys and girls with alcohol misusing parents versus those whose parents do not misuse alcohol. However, findings were gender specific and varied depending on the drinking outcomes under investigation. More evidence-based knowledge in this field is of great importance for better understanding the possible role paternal and maternal alcohol misuse may play in the development of hazardous alcohol drinking patterns among adolescent boys and girls.  
  Address HUNT Research Center, Department of Public Health and General Practice, Faculty of Medicine, Norwegian, University of Science and Technology, Forskningsveien 2, Levanger 7600, Norway. siri.h.haugland@ntnu.no  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1471-2458 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:24314020; PMC3866523 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 1445  
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Author (up) Haugland, S.H.; Strandheim, A.; Bratberg, G. url  doi
  Title Is high-risk use of intoxicants more common among adolescents who have seen their parents intoxicated? Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Tidsskrift for den Norske Laegeforening : Tidsskrift for Praktisk Medicin, ny Raekke Abbreviated Journal Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen  
  Volume 132 Issue 4 Pages 410-413  
  Keywords Adolescent; *Adolescent Behavior; Alcohol Drinking/psychology; Alcoholic Intoxication/psychology; Female; Humans; Male; *Parents; Prospective Studies; Questionnaires; Risk Factors; Self Report; Sex Factors; *Substance-Related Disorders/etiology/psychology  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Young people's alcohol consumption is related to their parents' alcohol consumption, but little focus has been placed on whether there is a connection with parental intoxication. The purpose of the study was to investigate whether the experience of seeing their parents intoxicated is associated with young people's alcohol consumption and experimenting with drugs in their teens. MATERIAL AND METHOD: The study is prospective and based on data from 2,399 teenagers who took part in the Ung-HUNT 1 study in 1995-1997 and the Ung-HUNT 2 study in 2000-2001. Self-reported questionnaire data and analysis by means of logistic regression, stratified by gender, were used. RESULTS: Having been drunk > 10 times was associated with having seen their parents intoxicated among boys (OR 3.7; 95% CI 2.7-5.1 and girls (OR 2.0; 1.5-2.6). Drinking alcohol weekly or more frequently was associated with parental intoxication among boys (OR 2.2; 1.6-3.0), but not girls unless they had seen their parents drunk many times (OR 2.4; 1.1-5.2). Experimenting with drugs was associated with parental intoxication among both boys (OR 2.6; 1.7-3.9) and girls (OR 1.6; 1.1-2.2). INTERPRETATION: Repeated intoxication, frequent alcohol consumption and experimenting with drugs by teenagers were associated with seeing their parents intoxicated. There are other explanatory factors for which the study was unable to control, and interpretation of the results should take this into account.  
  Address HUNT Research Centre, Department of Public Health and General Practice, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway. siri.h.haugland@ntnu.no  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Norwegian Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0029-2001 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:22353832 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 1529  
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Author (up) Holseter, C.; Dalen, J.D.; Krokstad, S.; Eikemo, T.A. url  doi
  Title Self-rated health and mortality in different occupational classes and income groups in Nord-Trondelag County, Norway Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Tidsskrift for den Norske Laegeforening : Tidsskrift for Praktisk Medicin, ny Raekke Abbreviated Journal Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen  
  Volume 135 Issue 5 Pages 434-438  
  Keywords Adult; Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Female; Follow-Up Studies; *Health Status; Health Status Disparities; Health Surveys; Humans; Income; Male; Middle Aged; *Mortality; Norway/epidemiology; Occupations; Proportional Hazards Models; *Self Report; *Social Class; Socioeconomic Factors; Unemployment; HUNT1  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: People with a lower socioeconomic position have a higher the prevalence of most self-rated health problems. In this article we ask whether this may be attributed to self-rated health not reflecting actual health, understood as mortality, in different socioeconomic groups. MATERIAL AND METHOD: For the study we used data from the Nord-Trondelag Health Study 1984-86 (HUNT1), in which the county's entire adult population aged 20 years and above were invited to participate. The association between self-rated health and mortality in different occupational classes and income groups was analysed. The analysis corrected for age, chronic disease, functional impairment and lifestyle factors. RESULTS: The association between self-rated health and mortality was of the same order of magnitude for the occupational classes and income groups, but persons without work/income and with poor self-rated health stood out. Compared with persons in the highest socioeconomic class, unemployed men had a hazard ratio for death that was three times higher in the follow-up period. For women with no income, the ratio was twice as high. INTERPRETATION Self-rated health and mortality largely conform to the different socioeconomic strata. This supports the perception that socioeconomic differences in health are a reality and represent a significant challenge nationally. Our results also increase the credibility of findings from other studies that use self-reported health in surveys to measure differences and identify the mechanisms that create them.  
  Address Institutt for sosiologi og statsvitenskap Fakultet for samfunnsvitenskap og teknologiledelse Norges teknisk-naturvitenskapelige universitet  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Norwegian Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0029-2001 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:25761028 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 1713  
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Author (up) Johansen, A.; Holmen, J.; Stewart, R.; Bjerkeset, O. url  doi
  Title Anxiety and depression symptoms in arterial hypertension: the influence of antihypertensive treatment. the HUNT study, Norway Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication European Journal of Epidemiology Abbreviated Journal Eur J Epidemiol  
  Volume 27 Issue 1 Pages 63-72  
  Keywords Adult; Aged; Antihypertensive Agents/*adverse effects/therapeutic use; Anxiety/*chemically induced/complications; Blood Pressure Determination; Cross-Sectional Studies; Depression/*chemically induced/complications; Drug Therapy, Combination; Female; Health Surveys; Humans; Hypertension/complications/*drug therapy/psychology; Logistic Models; Male; Middle Aged; Norway; Odds Ratio; Self Report  
  Abstract Antihypertensive drugs have been suggested to modulate symptoms of depression and anxiety. It is disputed whether this is due to the hypertension per se, its treatment, or both. The aim of this study was to investigate these associations in a large population sample. 55,472 participants in the Nord-Trondelag Health Study (HUNT 2, 1995-1997), Norway, who completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression rating Scale, were divided into 3 groups according to their diastolic blood pressure and antihypertensive treatment status. A cut-off of >/=90 mmHg diastolic blood pressure was used to identify hypertensive status. Differences in anxiety and depression symptom levels in untreated and treated hypertensives (all treatments) versus the normotensive reference group were explained by differences in age and gender distribution in the three groups in this study. However, the receipt of two or more antihypertensive drugs was associated with depressive symptoms alone (OR = 1.40, 95% CI = 1.03-1.90), but not with symptoms of anxiety (OR = 1.14, 95% CI = 0.83-1.57) or mixed anxiety and depression (OR = 1.19, 95% CI = 0.82-1.72) in the fully adjusted model, compared to untreated hypertension. Antihypertensive monotherapy (all agents) nor any single antihypertensive drug class were associated with symptoms of depression, anxiety, or mixed anxiety and depression. There may be a positive association between multi antihypertensive drug use and symptoms of depression, whereas this was not found in persons with symptoms of anxiety or mixed anxiety and depression. This might reflect poor antihypertensive treatment adherence leading to polypharmacy, or other unfavorable health behaviors in people with symptoms of pure depression.  
  Address Faculty of Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0393-2990 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:22183137 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 1533  
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Author (up) Kaasboll, J.; Ranoyen, I.; Nilsen, W.; Lydersen, S.; Indredavik, M.S. url  doi
  Title Associations between parental chronic pain and self-esteem, social competence, and family cohesion in adolescent girls and boys--family linkage data from the HUNT study Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication BMC Public Health Abbreviated Journal BMC public health  
  Volume 15 Issue Pages 817  
  Keywords Young-HUNT; HUNT3; Adolescent; Chronic Pain/*psychology; Cross-Sectional Studies; Family Relations; Fathers; Female; Humans; Male; Mothers; *Parents; Resilience, Psychological; Risk Factors; *Self Concept; Self Report; Sex Factors; *Social Skills  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Parental chronic pain has been associated with adverse outcomes in offspring. However, knowledge on individual and family resilience factors in adolescent offspring of chronic pain sufferers is scarce. This study thus aimed to investigate the associations between parental chronic pain and self-esteem, social competence, and family cohesion levels reported by adolescent girls and boys. METHODS: Based on cross-sectional surveys from the Nord Trondelag Health Study (the HUNT 3 study), the study used independent self-reports from adolescents aged 13 to 18 years (n = 3227) and their parents and conducted separate linear regression analyses for girls and boys. RESULTS: Concurrent maternal and paternal chronic pain was associated with reduced self-esteem, social competence, and family cohesion in girls. Moreover, maternal chronic pain was associated with higher social competence in boys and reduced self-esteem in girls. The majority of the observed associations were significantly different between girls and boys. Paternal chronic pain was not found to be associated with child outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: The findings indicate that the presence of both maternal and paternal chronic pain could be a potential risk factor for lower levels of individual and family resilience factors reported by girls. Further research on the relationship between parental pain and sex-specific offspring characteristics, including positive resilience factors, is warranted. The study demonstrates the importance of targeting the entire family in chronic pain care.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Regional Centre for Child and Youth Mental Health and Child Welfare (RKBU) of Central Norway, Facult Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Kaasboll, JannikeRanoyen, IngunnNilsen, WendyLydersen, StianIndredavik, Marit SengResearch Support, Non-U.S. Gov'tEngland2015/08/25 06:00BMC Public Health. 2015 Aug 22;15:817. doi: 10.1186/s12889-015-2164-9. Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Kaasboll2015 Serial 1829  
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Author (up) Knudsen, A.K.; Skogen, J.C. url  doi
  Title Monthly variations in self-report of time-specified and typical alcohol use: the Nord-Trondelag Health Study (HUNT3) Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication BMC Public Health Abbreviated Journal BMC public health  
  Volume 15 Issue Pages 172  
  Keywords Adult; Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Alcohol Drinking/*epidemiology; *Alcoholic Beverages; Bias (Epidemiology); Data Collection/*standards; Female; Health Surveys/*standards; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; Prevalence; Research Design; Risk Factors; Seasons; Self Report; Time Factors; Young Adult  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Aggregated measures are often employed when prevalence, risk factors and consequences of alcohol use in the population are monitored. In order to avoid time-dependent bias in aggregated measures, reference periods which assess alcohol use over longer time-periods or measures assessing typical alcohol use are considered superior to reference periods assessing recent or current alcohol consumption. Alcohol consumption in the population is found to vary through the months of the year, but it is not known whether monthly variations in actual alcohol use affects self-reports of long-term or typical alcohol consumption. Using data from a large, population-based study with data-collection over two years, the aim of the present study was to examine whether self-reported measures of alcohol use with different reference periods fluctuated across the months of the year. METHODS: Participants in the third wave of the Nord-Trondelag Health Survey (HUNT3) answered questions regarding alcohol use in the last 4 weeks, weekly alcohol consumption last twelve months, typical weekly binge drinking and typical number of alcoholic drinks consumed in a 14 day period. For each of the alcohol measures, monthly variations in reporting were estimated and compared to the overall average. RESULTS: Monthly variations in self-reported alcohol use were found across all alcohol measures regardless of reference period. A general tendency was found for highest level of alcohol use being reported during the summer season, however, the highest number of individuals who reported alcohol use in the last 4 weeks was found in January. Women reported substantially larger increase in weekly binge drinking during the summer months than men. CONCLUSIONS: Self-reports of alcohol use over longer time and typical alcohol use varies according to the month the respondents are assessed. Monthly variations should therefore be taken into account when designing, analyzing and interpreting data from population-based studies aimed to examine descriptive and analytical characteristics of alcohol use in the population.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Department of Health Registries, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Kalfarveien 31, 5018, Bergen, Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Knudsen, Ann KristinSkogen, Jens ChristofferengEngland2015/04/18 06:00BMC Public Health. 2015 Feb 21;15:172. doi: 10.1186/s12889-015-1533-8. Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Knudsen2015 Serial 1832  
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Author (up) Lonnee-Hoffmann, R.A.; Salvesen, O.; Morkved, S.; Schei, B.   
  Title Self-reported pelvic organ prolapse surgery, prevalence, and nonobstetric risk factors: findings from the Nord Trondelag Health Study Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Int Urogynecol J Abbreviated Journal International urogynecology journal  
  Volume 26 Issue 3 Pages 407-414  
  Keywords Adult; Age Factors; Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Asthma/epidemiology; Body Mass Index; Constipation/epidemiology; Cross-Sectional Studies; Female; Health Surveys; Humans; Incidence; Lifting; Middle Aged; Norway/epidemiology; Occupations; Pelvic Organ Prolapse/*epidemiology/*surgery; Prevalence; Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology; Risk Factors; Self Report; Smoking/epidemiology  
  Abstract INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to assess prevalence and risk factors of self-reported pelvic organ prolapse (POP) surgery in a Nordic county. METHODS: We assessed cross-sectional data collection from participants in the Nord-Trondelag Health Study in 2006-2008. All women in the county >/=30 years were eligible, of whom 20,285 (50.3 %) responded by completing questionnaires and attending screening stations. Outcome measures were self-reported POP surgery, age at survey, sociodemographic factors, and information on selected risk factors for POP: self-reported smoking, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, constipation a decade prior, and measured body mass index (BMI). Descriptive statistics, Kaplan-Meier estimates, and multivariate logistic regression were used. Statistical significance was defined as p  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Department of Public Health and General Practice, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Po Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Lonnee-Hoffmann2015a Serial 1842  
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Author (up) Myklestad, I.; Roysamb, E.; Tambs, K. url  doi
  Title Risk and protective factors for psychological distress among adolescents: a family study in the Nord-Trondelag Health Study Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology Abbreviated Journal Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol  
  Volume 47 Issue 5 Pages 771-782  
  Keywords *Achievement; Adolescent; Adult; Bullying/*psychology; *Family Health; Female; Humans; Leisure Activities; Male; Norway/epidemiology; Outcome Assessment (Health Care); Parent-Child Relations; Parents/psychology; Regression Analysis; Risk Factors; Schools/statistics & numerical data; Self Report; Sex Distribution; *Social Support; Socioeconomic Factors; Stress, Psychological/diagnosis/*epidemiology; Students/*psychology; Substance-Related Disorders; Young Adult  
  Abstract PURPOSE: The study aimed to investigate potential adolescent and parental psychosocial risk and protective factors for psychological distress among adolescents and, in addition, to examine potential gender and age differences in the effects of risk factors on adolescent psychological distress. METHODS: Data were collected among 8,984 Norwegian adolescents (13-19 years) and their parents in the Nord-Trondelag Health Study (HUNT). The outcome measure was psychological distress (SCL-5). RESULTS: Bivariate regression analysis with generalized estimating equation (GEE) model showed that all parental self-reported variables (mental distress, substance use, social network, economic problems, unemployment and family structure) and adolescents' self-reported variables (leisure activities, social support from friends, school-related problems and substance use) were significantly associated with psychological distress among adolescents. Results revealed that in a multiple regression analysis with a GEE model, adolescent psychosocial variables, specifically academic-related problems and being bullied at school, emerged as the strongest predictors of psychological distress among adolescents after controlling for age, gender, and all parental and adolescent variables. The following psychosocial risk factors were significantly more important for girl's psychological distress compared to boys: problems with academic achievement, conduct problems in school, frequency of being drunk, smoking, dissatisfaction in school, living alone and seen parents being drunk. CONCLUSION: Academic achievement and being bullied at school were the psychosocial factors most strongly associated with psychological distress among adolescents. Parental factors had an indirect effect on adolescent psychological distress, through adolescents' psychosocial factors.  
  Address Division of Mental Health, Department of Children and Adolescents, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, P.O. Box 4404, Nydalen, 0403, Oslo, Norway. ingri.myklestad@fhi.no  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0933-7954 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:21499806 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 1555  
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Author (up) Ness-Jensen, E.; Lindam, A.; Lagergren, J.; Hveem, K. url  doi
  Title Changes in prevalence, incidence and spontaneous loss of gastro-oesophageal reflux symptoms: a prospective population-based cohort study, the HUNT study Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Gut Abbreviated Journal Gut  
  Volume 61 Issue 10 Pages 1390-1397  
  Keywords Adult; Age Factors; Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Cohort Studies; Female; Follow-Up Studies; Gastroesophageal Reflux/drug therapy/*epidemiology; Health Surveys; Histamine H2 Antagonists/therapeutic use; Humans; Incidence; Logistic Models; Male; Middle Aged; Norway/epidemiology; Prevalence; Prospective Studies; Proton Pump Inhibitors/therapeutic use; Remission, Spontaneous; Self Report; Severity of Illness Index; Sex Factors  
  Abstract OBJECTIVE: Changes in the occurrence of gastro-oesophageal reflux symptoms (GORS) in the population remain uncertain. This study aimed to determine the prevalence changes, the incidence and the spontaneous loss of GORS. DESIGN: This population-based cohort study was conducted within the Nord-Trondelag Health Study (the HUNT study), a longitudinal series of population-based health surveys in Nord-Trondelag County, Norway. The study base encompassed all adult residents in the county, and the participants reported the degree of GORS during the previous 12 months. The number of participants included were 58,869 (64% response rate) in 1995-7 and 44,997 (49%) in 2006-9. Of these, 29,610 persons (61%) were prospectively followed up for an average of 11 years. RESULTS: Between 1995-7 and 2006-9, the prevalence of any, severe and at least weekly GORS increased by 30% (from 31.4% to 40.9%), 24% (from 5.4% to 6.7%) and 47% (from 11.6% to 17.1%), respectively. The average annual incidence of any and severe GORS was 3.07% and 0.23%, respectively. In women, but not men, the incidence of GORS increased with increasing age. The average annual spontaneous loss (not due to antireflux medication) of any and severe GORS was 2.32% and 1.22%, respectively. The spontaneous loss of GORS decreased with increasing age. CONCLUSION: Between 1995-7 and 2006-9 the prevalence of GORS increased substantially. At least weekly GORS increased by 47%. The average annual incidence of severe GORS was 0.23%, and the corresponding spontaneous loss was 1.22%. The incidence and spontaneous loss of GORS were influenced by sex and age.  
  Address HUNT Research Centre, Department of Public Health and General Practice, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Forskningsvegen 2, Levanger N-7600, Norway. eivind.ness-jensen@ntnu.no  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0017-5749 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:22190483 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 1560  
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Author (up) Nordfjaern, T. url  doi
  Title A population-based cohort study of anxiety, depression, sleep and alcohol outcomes among benzodiazepine and z-hypnotic users Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Addictive Behaviors Abbreviated Journal Addict Behav  
  Volume 37 Issue 10 Pages 1151-1157  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Aged; Alcohol Drinking/*epidemiology; Anxiety Disorders/chemically induced/drug therapy/*epidemiology; Benzodiazepines/*adverse effects; Depressive Disorder/chemically induced/*epidemiology; Female; Follow-Up Studies; Humans; Hypnotics and Sedatives/*adverse effects; Male; Middle Aged; Norway/epidemiology; Prospective Studies; Self Report; Sleep Disorders/chemically induced/drug therapy/*epidemiology; Treatment Outcome; Young Adult  
  Abstract OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to examine anxiety, depression, sleep and alcohol outcomes among individuals who were prescribed benzodiazepines or z-hypnotics in a Norwegian population-based sample (n = 58,967). METHODS: This 13 year historical cohort study obtained baseline measures of self-report anxiety, depression, sleep difficulties and alcohol use from the Nord-Trondelag Health Study (HUNT 2, 1995-1997). Information about outcomes was collected from the third wave (HUNT 3, 2006-2008) of the same epidemiological study. Prescription records of benzodiazepines and z-hypnotics were obtained from the Norwegian prescription database (NorPD, 2004-2008) and were linked to the HUNT 2 and HUNT 3 questionnaire data. RESULTS: Among the 58,967 respondents who were eligible for the study, 13,774 (23%) received at least one prescription of benzodiazepines or z-hypnotics in the period 2004-2008. Benzodiazepine use was associated with a higher risk of severe anxiety, depression and sleep outcomes. The assumption that benzodiazepine use is prospectively associated with a higher risk of problematic alcohol use was not supported. CONCLUSIONS: Consideration and discussion of the future place of benzodiazepines in treatment of anxiety and sleep difficulties in Norway could be warranted. Benzodiazepines may be efficient in reducing symptoms in the short term, but evidence from this long temporal follow-up study indicates limited positive influences in the long term.  
  Address The Drug and Alcohol Treatment Health Trust in Central Norway, Department of Research and Development, Trondheim, Norway. trond.nordfjern@rus-midt.no  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0306-4603 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:22704915 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 1563  
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Author (up) Rangul, V.; Bauman, A.; Holmen, T.L.; Midthjell, K. url  doi
  Title Is physical activity maintenance from adolescence to young adulthood associated with reduced CVD risk factors, improved mental health and satisfaction with life: the HUNT Study, Norway Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication The International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity Abbreviated Journal Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act  
  Volume 9 Issue Pages 144  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Blood Pressure; Body Composition; Body Mass Index; Cardiovascular Diseases/*prevention & control; Cholesterol, HDL/blood; Cross-Sectional Studies; Female; Follow-Up Studies; Health Status; Health Surveys; Humans; *Life Style; Linear Models; Logistic Models; Longitudinal Studies; Male; *Mental Health; *Motor Activity; Norway; Prospective Studies; Risk Factors; Self Report; Triglycerides/blood; Waist Circumference; Young Adult  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Little is known about the effect maintaining physical activity throughout adolescence has on cardiovascular risk factors and health status in early adulthood. This ten-year prospective longitudinal study investigated whether differences in physical activity patterns from adolescence to young-adulthood showed different associations with subsequent cardio-metabolic risk factors and mental health in young-adulthood. METHODS: Based on the second and third Norwegian Nord-Trondelag Health Surveys (HUNT2 and 3), we included 1869 individuals (838 males) participating in Young-HUNT (1995-97), aged 13-19 years and followed-up at HUNT3 (2006-08), aged 23-31. Self-reported physical activity (PA), mental health and perceived health were recorded, along with measurements of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), total cholesterol (TC), HDL cholesterol, glucose, triglycerides, resting heart rate (HR) and blood pressure. We used separate linear regressions models to investigate associations between physical activity and each CVD risk factor, and logistic regression analysis to examine PA patterns and subsequent mental health. Physically active maintainers were compared to inactive maintainers. Adopters (inactive as adolescents and physically active as young adults) were compared to inactive maintainers and to those who discontinued activity (relapsers). RESULTS: Active maintainers had significantly lower HR, compared to all other PA patterns. Active maintaining men had significantly lower WC than relapsers and inactive maintainers. When adjusted for age and gender, WC, BMI, HR, diastolic blood pressure and HDL-C showed significant differences comparing active maintaining to other PA patterns. Comparing inactive maintainers against adopters, only HR was significantly lower. Male adopters did not differ significantly in CVD risk compared to inactive maintainers and relapsers. Among females adopting was associated with lower HR and TC compared to inactive maintainers. Active maintainers showed better mental health than inactive maintainers. Active maintaining males had an increased likelihood of good mental health compared to adopters. Active maintaining females reported greater satisfaction with life compared to adopters. CONCLUSIONS: Those who maintained their physical activity from adolescence to young adulthood demonstrated a significantly lower CVD risk and better mental health, compared to inactive maintainers. Compared to inactivity maintainers and relapsers, adopting physical activity was not significantly associated with lowered CVD risk. Adopting physical activity between adolescence and young adulthood may not necessarily protect against mental distress.  
  Address Nord-Trondelag University College, Levanger, Norway. vegar.rangul@hint.no  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1479-5868 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:23241306; PMC3541207 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 1568  
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Author (up) Skogen, J.C.; Bergh, S.; Stewart, R.; Knudsen, A.K.; Bjerkeset, O. url  doi
  Title Midlife mental distress and risk for dementia up to 27 years later: the Nord-Trondelag Health Study (HUNT) in linkage with a dementia registry in Norway Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication BMC Geriatr Abbreviated Journal BMC geriatrics  
  Volume 15 Issue Pages 23  
  Keywords Adult; Aged; Dementia/*epidemiology; Female; Humans; Logistic Models; Male; Middle Aged; Norway/epidemiology; Odds Ratio; *Registries; Risk Factors; Self Report; Stress, Psychological/*psychology; Time Factors  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Dementia is an increasing public health challenge, and the number of individuals affected is growing rapidly. Mental disorders and symptoms of mental distress have been reported to be risk factors for dementia. The aim of this study was to examine whether midlife mental distress is a predictor for onset of dementia later in life. METHODS: Using data from a large population-based study (The Nord-Trondelag Health Study; HUNT1) linked to a dementia registry (The Health and Memory study; HMS) enabling a maximum 27 years of follow-up, we ascertained mental distress and subsequent dementia status for 30,902 individuals aged 30-60 years at baseline. In HUNT1, self-reported mental distress was assessed using the four-item Anxiety and Depression Index (ADI-4). Dementia status was ascertained from HMS, which included patient and caregiver history, cognitive testing and clinical and physical examinations from the hospitals and nursing homes serving the catchment area of HUNT1. In the main analysis, unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression models were computed for the prospective association between mental distress and dementia. In secondary analyses, two-way age and gender interactions with mental distress on later dementia were examined. RESULTS: A 50% increased odds for dementia among HUNT1-participants reporting mental distress was found (crude odds ratio (OR): 1.52; 95% CI 1.15-2.01), and a 35% increase in the fully adjusted model (OR 1.35; 95% CI 1.01-1.80). In secondary analyses, we found evidence for a two-way interaction with age on the association between mental distress and dementia (p = 0.030): the age- and gender adjusted OR was 2.44 (95% CI 1.18-5.05) in those aged 30-44 years at baseline, and 1.24 (0.91-1.69) in 45-60 year olds. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate an association between midlife mental distress and increased risk of later dementia, an association that was stronger for distress measured in early compared to later midlife. Mental distress should be investigated further as a potentially modifiable risk factor for dementia.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Division of Mental Health, Department of Public Mental Health, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Skogen, Jens ChristofferBergh, SverreStewart, RobertKnudsen, Ann KristinBjerkeset, OttarengResearch Support, Non-U.S. Gov'tEngland2015/04/19 06:00BMC Geriatr. 2015 Mar 10;15:23. doi: 10.1186/s12877-015-0020-5. Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Skogen2015 Serial 1861  
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Author (up) Storeng, S.H.; Sund, E.R.; Krokstad, S. url  doi
  Title Factors associated with basic and instrumental activities of daily living in elderly participants of a population-based survey: the Nord-Trondelag Health Study, Norway Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication BMJ Open Abbreviated Journal BMJ Open  
  Volume 8 Issue 3 Pages e018942  
  Keywords *Activities of Daily Living; Aged; Depression/epidemiology; Disabled Persons/*psychology; Exercise; Female; Follow-Up Studies; Health Services for the Aged/*statistics & numerical data; Health Status; *Health Surveys; Humans; Logistic Models; Male; Middle Aged; Norway/epidemiology; Prospective Studies; Quality of Life/*psychology; Self Report; Smoking/epidemiology; Social Participation/*psychology; *epidemiology; *public health; *social medicine  
  Abstract OBJECTIVES: To investigate factors associated with the need for assistance in basic and instrumental activities of daily living in Norwegian elderly. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: The Nord-Trondelag Health Study (HUNT), a large population-based health survey in Norway. PARTICIPANTS: 5050 individuals aged 60-69 years old at baseline in HUNT2 (1995-1997) who also participated in HUNT3 (2006-2008) were included in the study. 676/693 individuals were excluded in the analyses due to missing outcomes. OUTCOMES: Needing assistance in one or more basic or instrumental activities of daily living reported in HUNT3. RESULTS: In adjusted multinomial logistic regression analyses, poor self-rated health and depression were the strongest risk factors for needing assistance in one or more basic activities of daily living in HUNT3, with ORs of 2.13 (1.35 to 3.38) and 1.58 (0.91 to 2.73). Poor self-rated health and poor life satisfaction were the strongest risk factors for needing assistance in one or more instrumental activities of daily living in HUNT3, with ORs of 2.30 (1.93 to 2.74) and 2.29 (1.86 to 2.81), respectively. Excessive sitting time, short or prolonged sleeping time, and physical inactivity seemed to be the most important lifestyle risk factors for basic/instrumental activities of daily living (ADL/IADL) disability. The studied factors were, in general, greater risk factors for mortality during follow-up than for ADL/IADL disability. Smoking was the strongest risk factor for mortality during follow-up and non-participation in HUNT3. Smoking and low social participation were the strongest risk factors for non-participation in HUNT3. CONCLUSIONS: Subjective health perception, life satisfaction and depression were the strongest risk factors for needing assistance in one or more basic/instrumental activities of daily living later in life. These factors could be possible targets for prevention purposes.  
  Address Levanger Hospital, Nord-Trondelag Hospital Trust, Levanger, Norway  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2044-6055 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:29530908; PMCID:PMC5857703 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 2175  
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