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Author Ask, H.; Rognmo, K.; Torvik, F.A.; Roysamb, E.; Tambs, K. url  doi
  Title Non-random mating and convergence over time for alcohol consumption, smoking, and exercise: the Nord-Trondelag Health Study Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Behavior Genetics Abbreviated Journal Behav Genet  
  Volume 42 Issue 3 Pages 354-365  
  Keywords Adult; Age Factors; Aged, 80 and over; Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology/*genetics/psychology; Cohort Studies; Cross-Sectional Studies; Data Interpretation, Statistical; Exercise/*physiology/psychology; Female; Humans; Life Style; Longitudinal Studies; Male; *Marriage; Middle Aged; Nonlinear Dynamics; Norway/epidemiology; Prospective Studies; Smoking/epidemiology/*genetics/psychology; Spouses; Young Adult  
  Abstract Spouses tend to have similar lifestyles. We explored the degree to which spouse similarity in alcohol use, smoking, and physical exercise is caused by non-random mating or convergence. We used data collected for the Nord-Trondelag Health Study from 1984 to 1986 and prospective registry information about when and with whom people entered marriage/cohabitation between 1970 and 2000. Our sample included 19,599 married/cohabitating couples and 1,551 future couples that were to marry/cohabitate in the 14-16 years following data collection. All couples were grouped according to the duration between data collection and entering into marriage/cohabitation. Age-adjusted polychoric spouse correlations were used as the dependent variables in non-linear segmented regression analysis; the independent variable was time. The results indicate that spouse concordance in lifestyle is due to both non-random mating and convergence. Non-random mating appeared to be strongest for smoking. Convergence in alcohol use and smoking was evident during the period prior to marriage/cohabitation, whereas convergence in exercise was evident throughout life. Reduced spouse similarity in smoking with relationship duration may reflect secular trends.  
  Address Division of Mental Health, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway. heas@fhi.no  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0001-8244 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:22005768 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 1505  
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Author Asvold, B.O.; Bjorngaard, J.H.; Carslake, D.; Gabrielsen, M.E.; Skorpen, F.; Davey Smith, G.; Romundstad, P.R. url  doi
  Title Causal associations of tobacco smoking with cardiovascular risk factors: a Mendelian randomization analysis of the HUNT Study in Norway Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication International Journal of Epidemiology Abbreviated Journal Int J Epidemiol  
  Volume 43 Issue 5 Pages 1458-1470  
  Keywords HUNT3; Smoking; blood pressure; body mass index; cholesterol; glomerular filtration rate; heart rate  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoking has been associated with cardiovascular risk factors including adverse serum lipid levels, central obesity and higher resting heart rate, but lower blood pressure and body mass index (BMI). We used a Mendelian randomization approach to study whether these associations may be causal. If smoking affects cardiovascular risk factors then rs1051730 T alleles, predictors of increased smoking quantity, should be associated with cardiovascular risk factors among smokers, but not among never smokers. METHODS: Among 56 625 participants of a population-based study, we estimated associations of rs1051730 T alleles with cardiovascular risk factors and examined whether the associations differed by smoking status. RESULTS: Rs1051730 T alleles were associated with lower BMI and waist and hip circumferences and higher resting heart rate and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and the associations were strongest among current smokers (P interaction 5 x 10(-9) to 0.01). Rs1051730 T alleles were associated with lower systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure and higher HDL cholesterol concentrations, but these associations did not robustly differ by smoking status. There were no convincing associations of rs1051730 T alleles with waist-hip ratio, diastolic blood pressure and non-fasting serum concentrations of non-HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose and C-reactive protein. CONCLUSIONS: This Mendelian randomization analysis provides evidence that smoking may cause lower BMI and waist and hip circumferences and higher resting heart rate and eGFR. The findings further suggest that smoking is not a major determinant of waist-hip ratio or adverse blood pressure, serum lipid or glucose levels.  
  Address Department of Public Health, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway, Department of Endocrinology, St Olavs Hospital, Trondheim University Hospital, Trondheim, Norway, MRC Integrative Epidemiology Unit, School of Social and Community Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK, Department of Cancer Research and Molecular Medicine and Department of Laboratory Medicine, Children's and Women's Health, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0300-5771 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:24867305 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 1636  
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Author Bjorngaard, J.H.; Gunnell, D.; Elvestad, M.B.; Davey Smith, G.; Skorpen, F.; Krokan, H.; Vatten, L.; Romundstad, P. url  doi
  Title The causal role of smoking in anxiety and depression: a Mendelian randomization analysis of the HUNT study Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Psychological Medicine Abbreviated Journal Psychol Med  
  Volume 43 Issue 4 Pages 711-719  
  Keywords Adult; Alleles; Anxiety Disorders/*epidemiology/genetics; Body Mass Index; Causality; Chromosomes, Human, Pair 15/genetics; Depressive Disorder/*epidemiology/genetics; Female; Genetic Predisposition to Disease/epidemiology/genetics; Humans; Logistic Models; Male; *Mendelian Randomization Analysis; Middle Aged; Norway/epidemiology; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics; Pregnancy; Prevalence; Psychiatric Status Rating Scales; Receptors, Nicotinic/*genetics; Self Report; Smoking/*epidemiology/genetics/psychology; Young Adult  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking is strongly associated with mental illness but the causal direction of the association is uncertain. We investigated the causal relationship between smoking and symptoms of anxiety and depression in the Norwegian HUNT study using the rs1051730 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) variant located in the nicotine acetylcholine receptor gene cluster on chromosome 15 as an instrumental variable for smoking phenotypes. Among smokers, this SNP is robustly associated with smoking quantity and nicotine dependence. Method In total, 53 601 participants were genotyped for the rs1051730 SNP and provided information on smoking habits and symptoms of anxiety and depression using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). RESULTS: Self-reported smoking was positively associated with the prevalence of both anxiety and depression, and the measured polymorphism was positively associated with being a current smoker and the number of cigarettes smoked in current smokers. In the sample as a whole, risk of anxiety increased with each affected T allele [odds ratio (OR) 1.06, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02-1.09, p = 0.002] but there was no association with depression (p = 0.31). However, we found no clear association of the polymorphism with either anxiety (OR 1.03, 95% CI 0.97-1.09, p = 0.34) or depression (OR 1.02, 95% CI 0.95-1.09, p = 0.62) among smokers. CONCLUSIONS: As there was no association of the smoking-related rs1051730 SNP with anxiety and depression among smokers, the results suggest that smoking is not a cause of anxiety and depression.  
  Address Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway. johan.h.bjorngaard@ntnu.no  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0033-2917 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:22687325 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 1465  
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Author Bjorngaard, J.H.; Nordestgaard, A.T.; Taylor, A.E.; Treur, J.L.; Gabrielsen, M.E.; Munafo, M.R.; Nordestgaard, B.G.; Asvold, B.O.; Romundstad, P.; Davey Smith, G. url  doi
  Title Heavier smoking increases coffee consumption: findings from a Mendelian randomization analysis Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication International Journal of Epidemiology Abbreviated Journal Int J Epidemiol  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords Coffee, tea, smoking, Mendelian randomization  
  Abstract Background: There is evidence for a positive relationship between cigarette and coffee consumption in smokers. Cigarette smoke increases metabolism of caffeine, so this may represent a causal effect of smoking on caffeine intake. Methods: We performed Mendelian randomization analyses in the UK Biobank ( N = 114 029), the Norwegian HUNT study ( N = 56 664) and the Copenhagen General Population Study (CGPS) ( N = 78 650). We used the rs16969968 genetic variant as a proxy for smoking heaviness in all studies and rs4410790 and rs2472297 as proxies for coffee consumption in UK Biobank and CGPS. Analyses were conducted using linear regression and meta-analysed across studies. Results: Each additional cigarette per day consumed by current smokers was associated with higher coffee consumption (0.10 cups per day, 95% CI: 0.03, 0.17). There was weak evidence for an increase in tea consumption per additional cigarette smoked per day (0.04 cups per day, 95% CI: -0.002, 0.07). There was strong evidence that each additional copy of the minor allele of rs16969968 (which increases daily cigarette consumption) in current smokers was associated with higher coffee consumption (0.16 cups per day, 95% CI: 0.11, 0.20), but only weak evidence for an association with tea consumption (0.04 cups per day, 95% CI: -0.01, 0.09). There was no clear evidence that rs16969968 was associated with coffee or tea consumption in never or former smokers or that the coffee-related variants were associated with cigarette consumption. Conclusions: Higher cigarette consumption causally increases coffee intake. This is consistent with faster metabolism of caffeine by smokers, but could also reflect a behavioural effect of smoking on coffee drinking.  
  Address School of Social and Community Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0300-5771 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:29025033 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 1881  
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Author Brumpton, B.; Langhammer, A.; Romundstad, P.; Chen, Y.; Mai, X.-M. url  doi
  Title General and abdominal obesity and incident asthma in adults: the HUNT study Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication The European Respiratory Journal Abbreviated Journal Eur Respir J  
  Volume 41 Issue 2 Pages 323-329  
  Keywords Adult; Asthma/*complications/*epidemiology; Body Mass Index; Female; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; Models, Statistical; Norway; Obesity/*complications/*epidemiology; Odds Ratio; Prospective Studies; Risk Factors; Smoking; Waist Circumference; Young Adult  
  Abstract Measures of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference define general obesity and abdominal obesity respectively. While high BMI has been established as a risk factor for asthma in adults, waist circumference has seldom been investigated. To determine the association between BMI, waist circumference and incident asthma in adults, we conducted a prospective study (n=23,245) in a population living in Nord-Trondelag, Norway in 1995-2008. Baseline BMI and waist circumference were measured and categorised as general obesity (BMI >/=30.0 kg.m(2)) and abdominal obesity (waist circumference >/=88 cm in females and >/=102 cm in males). Incident asthma was self-reported new-onset cases during an 11-yr follow-up period. Odds ratios for asthma associated with obesity were calculated using multivariable logistic regression. General obesity was a risk factor for asthma in females (OR 1.96, 95% CI 1.52-2.52) and males (OR 1.84, 95% CI 1.30-2.59). In females, after additional adjustment for BMI, abdominal obesity remained a risk factor for asthma development (OR 1.46, 95% CI 1.04-2.05). Abdominal obesity seems to increase the risk of incident asthma in females in addition to BMI, indicating that using both measures of BMI and waist circumference in females may be a superior clinical assessment for asthma risk than any measure alone.  
  Address Dept. of Public Health and General Practice, Faculty of Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway. ben.brumpton@ntnu.no  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0903-1936 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:22653771 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 1461  
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Author Engdahl, B.; Aarhus, L.; Lie, A.; Tambs, K. url  doi
  Title Cardiovascular risk factors and hearing loss: The HUNT study Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Int J Audiol Abbreviated Journal International journal of audiology  
  Volume 54 Issue 12 Pages 958-966  
  Keywords Epidemiology; alcohol; blood lipids; blood pressure; body mass index; diabetes; hearing loss; physical activity; smoking  
  Abstract OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the present paper was to examine the association between prospectively and cross-sectionally assessed cardiovascular risk factors and hearing loss. DESIGN: Hearing was assessed by pure-tone average thresholds at low (0.25-0.5 kHz), middle (1-2 kHz), and high (3-8 kHz) frequencies. Self-reported or measured cardiovascular risk factors were assessed both 11 years before and simultaneously with the audiometric assessment. Cardiovascular risk factors were smoking, alcohol use, physical inactivity, waist circumference, body mass index, resting heart rate, blood pressure, triglycerides, total serum cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and diabetes. STUDY SAMPLE: A population-based cohort of 31 547 subjects. RESULTS: After adjustment for age, sex, level of education, income, recurrent ear infections, and noise exposure, risk factors associated with poorer hearing sensitivity were smoking, diabetes, physical inactivity, resting heart rate, and waist circumference. Smoking was only associated with hearing loss at high frequencies. The effects were very small, in combination explaining only 0.2-0.4% of the variance in addition to the component explained by age and the other cofactors. CONCLUSION: This cohort study indicates that, although many cardiovascular risk factors are associated with hearing loss, the effects are small and of doubtful clinical relevance.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication a Division of Mental Health , Norwegian Institute of Public Health , Nydalen , Oslo , Norway.b Natio Editor  
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  Notes 1708-8186Engdahl, BoAarhus, LisaLie, ArveTambs, KristianN01 DC62104/DC/NIDCD NIH HHS/United StatesJournal ArticleResearch Support, N.I.H., ExtramuralEnglandInt J Audiol. 2015;54(12):958-66. doi: 10.3109/14992027.2015.1090631. Epub 2015 Oct 8. Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Engdahl2015 Serial 1805  
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Author Ernstsen, L.; Strand, B.H.; Nilsen, S.M.; Espnes, G.A.; Krokstad, S. url  doi
  Title Trends in absolute and relative educational inequalities in four modifiable ischaemic heart disease risk factors: repeated cross-sectional surveys from the Nord-Trondelag Health Study (HUNT) 1984-2008 Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication BMC Public Health Abbreviated Journal BMC Public Health  
  Volume 12 Issue Pages 266  
  Keywords Adult; Cross-Sectional Studies; Diabetes Mellitus/*epidemiology; *Educational Status; Female; Humans; Hypercholesterolemia/*epidemiology; Hypertension/*epidemiology; Male; Middle Aged; Myocardial Ischemia/*epidemiology; Norway/epidemiology; Risk Factors; Smoking/*epidemiology  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: There has been an overall decrease in incident ischaemic heart disease (IHD), but the reduction in IHD risk factors has been greater among those with higher social position. Increased social inequalities in IHD mortality in Scandinavian countries is often referred to as the Scandinavian “public health puzzle”. The objective of this study was to examine trends in absolute and relative educational inequalities in four modifiable ischaemic heart disease risk factors (smoking, diabetes, hypertension and high total cholesterol) over the last three decades among Norwegian middle-aged women and men. METHODS: Population-based, cross-sectional data from The Nord-Trondelag Health Study (HUNT): HUNT 1 (1984-1986), HUNT 2 (1995-1997) and HUNT 3 (2006-2008), women and men 40-59 years old. Educational inequalities were assessed using the Slope Index of Inequality (SII) and The Relative Index of Inequality (RII). RESULTS: Smoking prevalence increased for all education groups among women and decreased in men. Relative and absolute educational inequalities in smoking widened in both genders, with significantly higher absolute inequalities among women than men in the two last surveys. Diabetes prevalence increased in all groups. Relative inequalities in diabetes were stable, while absolute inequalities increased both among women (p = 0.05) and among men (p = 0.01). Hypertension prevalence decreased in all groups. Relative inequalities in hypertension widened over time in both genders. However, absolute inequalities in hypertension decreased among women (p = 0.05) and were stable among men (p = 0.33). For high total cholesterol relative and absolute inequalities remained stable in both genders. CONCLUSION: Widening absolute educational inequalities in smoking and diabetes over the last three decades gives rise to concern. The mechanisms behind these results are less clear, and future studies are needed to assess if educational inequalities in secondary prevention of IHD are larger compared to educational inequalities in primary prevention of IHD. Continued monitoring of IHD risk factors at the population level is therefore warranted. The results emphasise the need for public health efforts to prevent future burdens of life-style-related diseases and to avoid further widening in socioeconomic inequalities in IHD mortality in Norway, especially among women.  
  Address Sor-Trondelag University College, Mauritz Hansens gt 2, 7004, Trondheim, Norway. linda.ernstsen@hist.no  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1471-2458 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:22471945; PMC3434116 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 1524  
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Author Fanidi, A.; Muller, D.C.; Yuan, J.-M.; Stevens, V.L.; Weinstein, S.J.; Albanes, D.; Prentice, R.; Thomsen, C.A.; Pettinger, M.; Cai, Q.; Blot, W.J.; Wu, J.; Arslan, A.A.; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, A.; McCullough, M.L.; Le Marchand, L.; Wilkens, L.R.; Haiman, C.A.; Zhang, X.; Han, J.; Stampfer, M.J.; Smith-Warner, S.A.; Giovannucci, E.; Giles, G.G.; Hodge, A.M.; Severi, G.; Johansson, M.; Grankvist, K.; Langhammer, A.; Krokstad, S.; Naess, M.; Wang, R.; Gao, Y.-T.; Butler, L.M.; Koh, W.-P.; Shu, X.-O.; Xiang, Y.-B.; Li, H.; Zheng, W.; Lan, Q.; Visvanathan, K.; Bolton, J.H.; Ueland, P.M.; Midttun, O.; Ulvik, A.; Caporaso, N.E.; Purdue, M.; Ziegler, R.G.; Freedman, N.D.; Buring, J.E.; Lee, I.-M.; Sesso, H.D.; Gaziano, J.M.; Manjer, J.; Ericson, U.; Relton, C.; Brennan, P.; Johansson, M. url  doi
  Title Circulating Folate, Vitamin B6, and Methionine in Relation to Lung Cancer Risk in the Lung Cancer Cohort Consortium (LC3) Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Journal of the National Cancer Institute Abbreviated Journal J Natl Cancer Inst  
  Volume 110 Issue 1 Pages  
  Keywords Adult; Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Asia/epidemiology; Australia/epidemiology; Case-Control Studies; Cotinine/blood; Europe/epidemiology; Female; Folic Acid/*blood; Humans; Incidence; Lung Neoplasms/blood/*epidemiology; Male; Methionine/*blood; Middle Aged; Prospective Studies; Protective Factors; Risk Factors; Sex Factors; Smoking/blood/epidemiology; United States/epidemiology; Vitamin B 6/*blood  
  Abstract Background: Circulating concentrations of B vitamins and factors related to one-carbon metabolism have been found to be strongly inversely associated with lung cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. The extent to which these associations are present in other study populations is unknown. Methods: Within 20 prospective cohorts from the National Cancer Institute Cohort Consortium, a nested case-control study was designed including 5364 incident lung cancer case patients and 5364 control subjects who were individually matched to case patients by age, sex, cohort, and smoking status. Centralized biochemical analyses were performed to measure circulating concentrations of vitamin B6, folate, and methionine, as well as cotinine as an indicator of recent tobacco exposure. The association between these biomarkers and lung cancer risk was evaluated using conditional logistic regression models. Results: Participants with higher circulating concentrations of vitamin B6 and folate had a modestly decreased risk of lung cancer risk overall, the odds ratios when comparing the top and bottom fourths (OR 4vs1 ) being 0.88 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.78 to 1.00) and 0.86 (95% CI = 0.74 to 0.99), respectively. We found stronger associations among men (vitamin B6: OR 4vs1 = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.62 to 0.89; folate: OR 4vs1 = 0.75, 95% CI = 0.61 to 0.93) and ever smokers (vitamin B6: OR 4vs1 = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.67 to 0.91; folate: OR 4vs1 = 0.87, 95% CI = 0.73 to 1.03). We further noted that the association of folate was restricted to Europe/Australia and Asia, whereas no clear association was observed for the United States. Circulating concentrations of methionine were not associated with lung cancer risk overall or in important subgroups. Conclusions: Although confounding by tobacco exposure or reverse causation cannot be ruled out, these study results are compatible with a small decrease in lung cancer risk in ever smokers who avoid low concentrations of circulating folate and vitamin B6.  
  Address Genetic Epidemiology Group, International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, France; Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Imperial College London, London, UK; Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, PA; Department of Epidemiology, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA; Epidemiology Research Program, American Cancer Society, Inc., Atlanta, GA; Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics and Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD; Division of Public Health Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA; Health Promotion Sciences, Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ; Division of Epidemiology, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt Epidemiology Center, Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN; International Epidemiology Institute, Rockville, MD; Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Population Health and Environmental Medicine and Population Health, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY; Epidemiology Program, Cancer Research Center of Hawaii, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI; Channing Division of Network Medicine, Division of Preventive Medicine, and Division of Aging, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA; Department of Epidemiology and Department of Nutrition, Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA; Cancer Epidemiology Centre, Cancer Council Victoria, Melbourne, Australia; Centre for Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Melbourne School of Population and Global Health, The University of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia; Molecular end Epidemiology Unit, HuGeF, Human Genetics Foundation, Torino, Italy; Inserm (Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale), Centre for Research in Epidemiology and Population Health, Villejuif, France; Umea, University, Umea, Sweden; HUNT Research Centre, Department of Public Health and General Practice, NTNU, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Levanger, Norway; Department of Epidemiology, Shanghai Cancer Institute, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, China; Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School Singapore, Singapore; Department of Epidemiology, George W Comstock Center for Public Health Research and Prevention Health Monitoring Unit, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD; Laboratory of Clinical Biochemistry, Department of Clinical Science, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway; Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway; Bevital AS, Bergen, Norway; Boston VA Medical Center, Boston, MA; Department of Surgery, Skane University Hospital Malmo, Lund University, Malmo, Sweden; Department of Clinical Sciences, Malmo, Lund University, Lund, Sweden; Institute of Genetic Medicine, Newcastle University, Newcastle, UK; MRC Integrative Epidemiology Unit, School of Social and Community Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0027-8874 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:28922778; PMCID:PMC5989622 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 2081  
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Author Islam, M.K.; Folland, S.; Kaarboe, O.M. url  doi
  Title Social capital and cigarette smoking: New empirics featuring the Norwegian HUNT data Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Economics and Human Biology Abbreviated Journal Econ Hum Biol  
  Volume 26 Issue Pages 174-185  
  Keywords *Cigarette smoking; *Instrumental variables; *Longitudinal data; *Social capital  
  Abstract Using a rich Norwegian longitudinal data set, this study explores the effects of different social capital variables on the probability of cigarette smoking. There are four social capital variables available in two waves of our data set. Our results based on probit (and OLS) analyses (with municipality fixed-effects) show that the likelihood of smoking participation is negatively and significantly associated with social capital attributes, namely, community trust (-0.017), participation in organizational activities (-0.032), and cohabitation (-0.045). Significant negative associations were also observed in panel data, pooled OLS, and random effects models for community trust (-0.024; -0.010) and cohabitation (-0.040; -0.032). Fixed-effects models also showed significant negative effects for cohabitation (-0.018). Estimates of alternative instrumental variables (IV) based on recursive bivariate probit and IV-GMM models also confirmed negative and significant effects for three of its characteristics: cohabitation (-0.030; -0.046), community trust (-0.065; -0.075), and participation in organizational activities (-0.035; -0.046). The limitations of our conclusions are discussed, and the significance of our study for the field of social capital and health is described, along with suggested avenues for future research.  
  Address Department of Health Management and Health Economics, University of Oslo, 0373 Oslo, Norway  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1570-677X ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:28448881 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 1931  
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Author Johnsen, M.B.; Vie, G.A.; Winsvold, B.S.; Bjorngaard, J.H.; Asvold, B.O.; Gabrielsen, M.E.; Pedersen, L.M.; Hellevik, A.I.; Langhammer, A.; Furnes, O.; Flugsrud, G.B.; Skorpen, F.; Romundstad, P.R.; Storheim, K.; Nordsletten, L.; Zwart, J.A. url  doi
  Title The causal role of smoking on the risk of hip or knee replacement due to primary osteoarthritis: a Mendelian randomisation analysis of the HUNT study Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Osteoarthritis and Cartilage Abbreviated Journal Osteoarthritis Cartilage  
  Volume 25 Issue 6 Pages 817-823  
  Keywords Epidemiology; Genetic variants; Osteoarthritis; Smoking  
  Abstract OBJECTIVE: Smoking has been associated with a reduced risk of hip and knee osteoarthritis (OA) and subsequent joint replacement. The aim of the present study was to assess whether the observed association is likely to be causal. METHOD: 55,745 participants of a population-based cohort were genotyped for the rs1051730 C > T single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), a proxy for smoking quantity among smokers. A Mendelian randomization analysis was performed using rs1051730 as an instrument to evaluate the causal role of smoking on the risk of hip or knee replacement (combined as total joint replacement (TJR)). Association between rs1051730 T alleles and TJR was estimated by hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). All analyses were adjusted for age and sex. RESULTS: Smoking quantity (no. of cigarettes) was inversely associated with TJR (HR 0.97, 95% CI 0.97-0.98). In the Mendelian randomization analysis, rs1051730 T alleles were associated with reduced risk of TJR among current smokers (HR 0.84, 95% CI 0.76-0.98, per T allele), however we found no evidence of association among former (HR 0.97, 95% CI 0.88-1.07) and never smokers (HR 0.97, 95% CI 0.89-1.06). Neither adjusting for body mass index (BMI), cardiovascular disease (CVD) nor accounting for the competing risk of mortality substantially changed the results. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that smoking may be causally associated with the reduced risk of TJR. Our findings add support to the inverse association found in previous observational studies. More research is needed to further elucidate the underlying mechanisms of this causal association.  
  Address Communication and Research Unit for Musculoskeletal Disorders, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway; Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway. Electronic address: j.a.zwart@medisin.uio.no  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1063-4584 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:28049019 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 1934  
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Author Johnsen, M.B.; Winsvold, B.S.; Borte, S.; Vie, G.A.; Pedersen, L.M.; Storheim, K.; Skorpen, F.; Hagen, K.; Bjorngaard, J.H.; Asvold, B.O.; Zwart, J.A. url  doi
  Title The causal role of smoking on the risk of headache. A Mendelian randomization analysis in the HUNT study Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication European Journal of Neurology Abbreviated Journal Eur J Neurol  
  Volume 25 Issue 9 Pages 1148-e102  
  Keywords *epidemiology; *genetic variants; *headache; *migraine; *smoking  
  Abstract BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Headache has been associated with various lifestyle and psychosocial factors, one of which is smoking. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the association between smoking intensity and headache is likely to be causal. METHOD: A total of 58 316 participants from the Nord-Trondelag Health (HUNT) study with information on headache status were genotyped for the rs1051730 C>T single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP). The SNP was used as an instrument for smoking intensity in a Mendelian randomization analysis. The association between rs1051730 T alleles and headache was estimated by odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals. Additionally, the association between the SNP and migraine or non-migrainous headache versus no headache was investigated. All analyses were adjusted for age and sex. RESULTS: There was no strong evidence that the rs1051730 T allele was associated with headache in ever smokers (odds ratio 0.99, 95% confidence interval 0.95-1.02). Similarly, there was no association between the rs1051730 T allele and migraine or non-migrainous headache versus no headache. CONCLUSION: The findings from this study do not support that there is a strong causal relationship between smoking intensity and any type of headache. Larger Mendelian randomization studies are required to examine whether higher smoking quantity can lead to a moderate increase in the risk of headache subtypes.  
  Address Department of Neurology, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1351-5101 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:29747220 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 2106  
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Author Krokstad, S.; Ding, D.; Grunseit, A.C.; Sund, E.R.; Holmen, T.L.; Rangul, V.; Bauman, A. url  doi
  Title Multiple lifestyle behaviours and mortality, findings from a large population-based Norwegian cohort study – The HUNT Study Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication BMC Public Health Abbreviated Journal BMC Public Health  
  Volume 17 Issue 1 Pages 58  
  Keywords Adult; Aged; Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology; Cohort Studies; Diet/adverse effects; Female; Follow-Up Studies; Humans; *Life Style; Male; Middle Aged; Norway/epidemiology; Proportional Hazards Models; Risk Factors; *Risk-Taking; Sleep; Smoking/adverse effects; Social Behavior; Young Adult; *All-cause mortality; *Cardiovascular disease; *Cohort study; *Lifestyle behaviour; *Metabolic disease; *Risk factors  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Lifestyle risk behaviours are responsible for a large proportion of disease burden and premature mortality worldwide. Risk behaviours tend to cluster in populations. We developed a new lifestyle risk index by including emerging risk factors (sleep, sitting time, and social participation) and examine unique risk combinations and their associations with all-cause and cardio-metabolic mortality. METHODS: Data are from a large population-based cohort study in a Norway, the Nord-Trondelag Health Study (HUNT), with an average follow-up time of 14.1 years. Baseline data from 1995-97 were linked to the Norwegian Causes of Death Registry. The analytic sample comprised 36 911 adults aged 20-69 years. Cox regression models were first fitted for seven risk factors (poor diet, excessive alcohol consumption, current smoking, physical inactivity, excessive sitting, too much/too little sleep, and poor social participation) separately and then adjusted for socio-demographic covariates. Based on these results, a lifestyle risk index was developed. Finally, we explored common combinations of the risk factors in relation to all-cause and cardio-metabolic mortality outcomes. RESULTS: All single risk factors, except for diet, were significantly associated with both mortality outcomes, and were therefore selected to form a lifestyle risk index. Risk of mortality increased as the index score increased. The hazard ratio for all-cause mortality increased from 1.37 (1.15-1.62) to 6.15 (3.56-10.63) as the number of index risk factors increased from one to six respectively. Among the most common risk factor combinations the association with mortality was particularly strong when smoking and/or social participation were included. CONCLUSIONS: This study adds to previous research on multiple risk behaviours by incorporating emerging risk factors. Findings regarding social participation and prolonged sitting suggest new components of healthy lifestyles and potential new directions for population health interventions.  
  Address Prevention Research Collaboration, Sydney School of Public Health, The University of Sydney, Camperdown, NSW, Australia  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1471-2458 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:28068991; PMCID:PMC5223537 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 1946  
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Author Kvalheim, S.; Sandven, I.; Hagen, K.; Zwart, J.-A. url  doi
  Title Smoking as a risk factor for chronic musculoskeletal complaints is influenced by age. The HUNT study Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Pain Abbreviated Journal Pain  
  Volume 154 Issue 7 Pages 1073-1079  
  Keywords Adult; Age Distribution; Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Arthralgia/*diagnosis/*epidemiology; Chronic Pain/*diagnosis/*epidemiology; Comorbidity; Educational Status; Female; Humans; Incidence; Longitudinal Studies; Male; Middle Aged; Norway/epidemiology; Risk Factors; Sex Distribution; Smoking/*epidemiology; Young Adult  
  Abstract Chronic musculoskeletal complaints (MSCs) are among the major health problems, and cross-sectional studies suggest an association between smoking and MSCs. The causal relationship, however, is not known. The present study is designed to assess the association between smoking and chronic MSCs, and is based on data from a large longitudinal cohort study of all inhabitants 20years in Nord-Trondelag County (Helse Undersokelsen i Nord-Trondelag -HUNT), conducted in 1995-97 (HUNT 2) and 2006-08 (HUNT 3). The study population consisted of 15,134 subjects without chronic MSCs and valid exposure data on smoking at baseline (HUNT 2). The outcome was defined as presence of chronic MSCs at follow-up (HUNT 3). The results show that smoking at baseline represents a 20% increased risk (IRR=1.20, 95% CI 1.14-1.27, P=0.0001) for chronic MSCs at follow-up. The risk for chronic MSCs by daily smoking decreased with increasing age up to 50years; after this, there was no significant association. The results show that modifiable risk factors like smoking should be included in public health intervention programs for MSCs.  
  Address Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway. synnovkk@medisin.uio.no  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0304-3959 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:23623251 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 1434  
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Author Larose, T.L.; Brumpton, B.M.; Langhammer, A.; Camargo, C.A.J.; Chen, Y.; Romundstad, P.; Mai, X.M.   
  Title Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level, smoking and lung function in adults: the HUNT Study Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Eur Respir J Abbreviated Journal The European respiratory journal  
  Volume 46 Issue 2 Pages 355-363  
  Keywords Adult; Cross-Sectional Studies; Female; Follow-Up Studies; Forced Expiratory Volume; Humans; Logistic Models; Longitudinal Studies; Male; Middle Aged; Norway/epidemiology; Odds Ratio; Smoking/*blood/*epidemiology; Spirometry; Vitamin D/*analogs & derivatives/blood; Young Adult  
  Abstract The association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) level and lung function changes in the general population remains unclear.We conducted cross-sectional (n=1220) and follow-up (n=869) studies to investigate the interrelationship of serum 25(OH)D, smoking and lung function changes in a random sample of adults from the Nord-Trondelag Health (HUNT) Study, Norway.Lung function was measured using spirometry and included forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) % predicted, forced vital capacity (FVC) % pred and FEV1/FVC ratio. Multiple linear and logistic regression models estimated the adjusted difference in lung function measures or lung function decline, adjusted odds ratios for impaired lung function or development of impaired lung function and 95% confidence intervals.40% of adults had serum 25(OH)D levels  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Department of Public Health and General Practice, Faculty of Medicine, Norwegian University of Scien Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Larose2015b Serial 1837  
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Author Lindekleiv, H.; Sandvei, M.S.; Romundstad, P.R.; Wilsgaard, T.; Njolstad, I.; Ingebrigtsen, T.; Vik, A.; Mathiesen, E.B. url  doi
  Title Joint effect of modifiable risk factors on the risk of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: a cohort study Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation Abbreviated Journal Stroke  
  Volume 43 Issue 7 Pages 1885-1889  
  Keywords Adult; Alcohol Drinking/*epidemiology; Cohort Studies; Female; Follow-Up Studies; Humans; Hypertension/complications/*epidemiology; Male; Middle Aged; Norway/epidemiology; Prospective Studies; Risk Factors; Smoking/adverse effects/*epidemiology; Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/*epidemiology/etiology/prevention & control  
  Abstract BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The joint effect of risk factors on the risk of aneurysmal SAH (aSAH) has been studied sparsely. METHODS: We examined the potential synergism between cigarette smoking, hypertension, and regular alcohol consumption and the risk of aSAH in a prospective, population-based cohort of participants from the Nord-Trondelag Health Study and the Tromso Study in Norway. Interaction was assessed on additive and multiplicative scales. RESULTS: We identified 122 cases of aSAH over 977 895 person-years of follow-up. Interaction was observed between current smoking and hypertension on the additive scale, (relative excess risk because of interaction, 6.40; 95% CI, 0.88-11.92, adjusted for sex and age). We found no significant interaction between hypertension and regular alcohol consumption or current cigarette smoking and regular alcohol consumption on the additive scale. No significant interaction was detected on the multiplicative scale. CONCLUSIONS: The joint effect of current smoking and hypertension on the risk of aSAH was stronger than was the sum of the independent effects of each factor. Persons at risk of aSAH should be advised of a markedly stronger risk for aSAH with the combination of current smoking and hypertension. In addition, the finding suggests that combining smoking cessation and blood pressure lowering may have an extra risk reduction effect on preventing aSAH.  
  Address Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Tromso, University Hospital of North Norway, N-9037 Tromso, Norway. haakon.lindekleiv@gmail.com  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0039-2499 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:22517600 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 1546  
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Author Lonnee-Hoffmann, R.A.; Salvesen, O.; Morkved, S.; Schei, B.   
  Title Self-reported pelvic organ prolapse surgery, prevalence, and nonobstetric risk factors: findings from the Nord Trondelag Health Study Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Int Urogynecol J Abbreviated Journal International urogynecology journal  
  Volume 26 Issue 3 Pages 407-414  
  Keywords Adult; Age Factors; Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Asthma/epidemiology; Body Mass Index; Constipation/epidemiology; Cross-Sectional Studies; Female; Health Surveys; Humans; Incidence; Lifting; Middle Aged; Norway/epidemiology; Occupations; Pelvic Organ Prolapse/*epidemiology/*surgery; Prevalence; Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology; Risk Factors; Self Report; Smoking/epidemiology  
  Abstract INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to assess prevalence and risk factors of self-reported pelvic organ prolapse (POP) surgery in a Nordic county. METHODS: We assessed cross-sectional data collection from participants in the Nord-Trondelag Health Study in 2006-2008. All women in the county >/=30 years were eligible, of whom 20,285 (50.3 %) responded by completing questionnaires and attending screening stations. Outcome measures were self-reported POP surgery, age at survey, sociodemographic factors, and information on selected risk factors for POP: self-reported smoking, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, constipation a decade prior, and measured body mass index (BMI). Descriptive statistics, Kaplan-Meier estimates, and multivariate logistic regression were used. Statistical significance was defined as p  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Department of Public Health and General Practice, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Po Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Lonnee-Hoffmann2015a Serial 1842  
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Author Mangerud, W.L.; Bjerkeset, O.; Holmen, T.L.; Lydersen, S.; Indredavik, M.S. url  doi
  Title Smoking, alcohol consumption, and drug use among adolescents with psychiatric disorders compared with a population based sample Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Journal of Adolescence Abbreviated Journal J Adolesc  
  Volume 37 Issue 7 Pages 1189-1199  
  Keywords Young-HUNT; HUNT3; Adolescent; Alcohol; Drug use; Mental disorders; Smoking; Substance use  
  Abstract This study investigated frequencies of smoking, alcohol use, and illicit drug use by diagnostic category in 566 adolescent psychiatric patients, comparing this sample with 8173 adolescents from the general population in Norway who completed the Young-HUNT 3 survey. Frequencies of current alcohol use were high in both samples but were lower among psychiatric patients. Compared with adolescents in the general population, adolescents in the clinical sample had a higher prevalence of current smoking and over four times higher odds of having tried illicit drugs. In the clinical sample, those with mood disorders reported the highest frequencies of smoking, alcohol use, and illicit drug use, whereas those with autism spectrum disorders reported the lowest frequencies. Our results show an increased prevalence of risky health behaviors among adolescents with psychiatric disorders compared with the general population. The awareness of disorder-specific patterns of smoking and substance use may guide preventive measures.  
  Address Regional Centre for Child and Youth Mental Health and Child Welfare, Faculty of Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Pb 8905, MTFS, 7491 Trondheim, Norway; Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, St. Olav's University Hospital, 7433 Trondheim, Norway. Electronic address: marit.s.indredavik@ntnu.no  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0140-1971 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:25190498 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 1653  
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Author Markaki, M.; Tsamardinos, I.; Langhammer, A.; Lagani, V.; Hveem, K.; Roe, O.D. url  doi
  Title A Validated Clinical Risk Prediction Model for Lung Cancer in Smokers of All Ages and Exposure Types: A HUNT Study Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication EBioMedicine Abbreviated Journal EBioMedicine  
  Volume 31 Issue Pages 36-46  
  Keywords Adult; Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Databases, Factual; Female; Follow-Up Studies; Humans; Lung Neoplasms/*epidemiology; Male; Middle Aged; *Models, Biological; Norway; Predictive Value of Tests; Prospective Studies; *Registries; Risk Factors; *Smoking/adverse effects/epidemiology; All ages; All smokers; Data-driven; Early diagnosis; Ever-smokers; External validation; Feature selection; Lung cancer prediction  
  Abstract Lung cancer causes >1.6 million deaths annually, with early diagnosis being paramount to effective treatment. Here we present a validated risk assessment model for lung cancer screening. The prospective HUNT2 population study in Norway examined 65,237 people aged >20years in 1995-97. After a median of 15.2years, 583 lung cancer cases had been diagnosed; 552 (94.7%) ever-smokers and 31 (5.3%) never-smokers. We performed multivariable analyses of 36 candidate risk predictors, using multiple imputation of missing data and backwards feature selection with Cox regression. The resulting model was validated in an independent Norwegian prospective dataset of 45,341 ever-smokers, in which 675 lung cancers had been diagnosed after a median follow-up of 11.6years. Our final HUNT Lung Cancer Model included age, pack-years, smoking intensity, years since smoking cessation, body mass index, daily cough, and hours of daily indoors exposure to smoke. External validation showed a 0.879 concordance index (95% CI [0.866-0.891]) with an area under the curve of 0.87 (95% CI [0.85-0.89]) within 6years. Only 22% of ever-smokers would need screening to identify 81.85% of all lung cancers within 6years. Our model of seven variables is simple, accurate, and useful for screening selection.  
  Address Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Department of Clinical Research and Molecular Medicine, Prinsesse Kristinsgt. 1, Trondheim, NO 7491, Norway; Levanger Hospital, Nord-Trondelag Hospital Trust, Cancer Clinic, Kirkegata 2, Levanger, NO 7600, Norway; Clinical Cancer Research Center, Department of Clinical Medicine, Hobrovej 18-22, Aalborg, DK 9000, Denmark. Electronic address: oluf.roe@ntnu.no  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2352-3964 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:29678673; PMCID:PMC6013755 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 2131  
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Author Ness-Jensen, E.; Lagergren, J. url  doi
  Title Tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption and gastro-oesophageal reflux disease Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Best Practice & Research. Clinical Gastroenterology Abbreviated Journal Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol  
  Volume 31 Issue 5 Pages 501-508  
  Keywords Causality; Disease management; Ethanol; Gastroesophageal reflux; Smoking; Tobacco  
  Abstract Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) develops when reflux of gastric content causes troublesome symptoms or complications. The main symptoms are heartburn and acid regurgitation and complications include oesophagitis, strictures, Barrett's oesophagus and oesophageal adenocarcinoma. In addition to hereditary influence, GORD is associated with lifestyle factors, mainly obesity. Tobacco smoking is regarded as an aetiological factor of GORD, while alcohol consumption is considered a triggering factor of reflux episodes and not a causal factor. Yet, both tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption can reduce the lower oesophageal sphincter pressure, facilitating reflux. In addition, tobacco smoking reduces the production of saliva rich in bicarbonate, which is important for buffering and clearance of acid in the oesophagus. Alcohol also has a direct noxious effect on the oesophageal mucosa, which predisposes to acidic injury. Tobacco smoking cessation reduces the risk of GORD symptoms and avoidance of alcohol is encouraged in individuals where alcohol consumption triggers reflux.  
  Address Upper Gastrointestinal Surgery, Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, 171 76 Stockholm, Sweden; School of Cancer Sciences, King's College London, SE1 9RT, United Kingdom. Electronic address: jesper.lagergren@ki.se  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1521-6918 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:29195669 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 1965  
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Author Ness-Jensen, E.; Lindam, A.; Lagergren, J.; Hveem, K. url  doi
  Title Weight loss and reduction in gastroesophageal reflux. A prospective population-based cohort study: the HUNT study Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication The American Journal of Gastroenterology Abbreviated Journal Am J Gastroenterol  
  Volume 108 Issue 3 Pages 376-382  
  Keywords Adult; Aged; Aged, 80 and over; *Body Mass Index; Female; Gastroesophageal Reflux/*epidemiology/etiology; Health Surveys; Heartburn/*epidemiology/etiology; Humans; Longitudinal Studies; Male; Middle Aged; Norway/epidemiology; Prospective Studies; Questionnaires; Smoking; Treatment Outcome; *Weight Loss  
  Abstract OBJECTIVES: High body mass index (BMI) is an established risk factor of gastroesophageal reflux symptoms (GERS). The aim of this study was to clarify if weight loss reduces GERS. METHODS: The study was part of the Nord-Trondelag health study (the HUNT study), a prospective population-based cohort study conducted in Nord-Trondelag County, Norway. All residents of the county from 20 years of age were invited. In 1995-1997 (HUNT 2) and 2006-2009 (HUNT 3), 58,869 and 44,997 individuals, respectively, responded to a questionnaire on heartburn and acid regurgitation. Among these, 29,610 individuals (61% response rate) participated at both times and were included in the present study. The association between weight loss and reduction of GERS was calculated using logistic regression. The analyses were stratified by antireflux medication and the results adjusted for sex, age, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, education, and physical exercise. RESULTS: Weight loss was dose-dependently associated with a reduction of GERS and an increased treatment success with antireflux medication. Among individuals with >3.5 units decrease in BMI, the adjusted odds ratio (OR) of loss of any (minor or severe) GERS was 1.98 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.45-2.72) when using no or less than weekly antireflux medication, and 3.95 (95% CI 2.03-7.65) when using at least weekly antireflux medication. The corresponding ORs of loss of severe GERS was 0.90 (95% CI 0.32-2.55) and 3.11 (95% CI 1.13-8.58). CONCLUSIONS: Weight loss was dose-dependently associated with both a reduction of GERS and an increased treatment success with antireflux medication in the general population.  
  Address HUNT Research Centre, Department of Public Health and General Practice, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Levanger, Norway. eivind.ness-jensen@ntnu.no  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0002-9270 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:23358462 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 1409  
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Author Paulsen, J.; Askim, A.; Mohus, R.M.; Mehl, A.; Dewan, A.; Solligard, E.; Damas, J.K.; Asvold, B.O. url  doi
  Title Associations of obesity and lifestyle with the risk and mortality of bloodstream infection in a general population: a 15-year follow-up of 64 027 individuals in the HUNT Study Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication International Journal of Epidemiology Abbreviated Journal Int J Epidemiol  
  Volume 46 Issue 5 Pages 1573-1581  
  Keywords Bacteraemia; alcohol drinking; exercise; obesity; sepsis; smoking  
  Abstract Background: Bloodstream infections (BSI) cause considerable morbidity and mortality, and primary prevention should be a priority. Lifestyle factors are of particular interest since they represent a modifiable target. Methods: We conducted a prospective cohort study among participants in the population-based Norwegian HUNT2 Survey, where 64 027 participants were followed from 1995-97 through 2011 by linkage to prospectively recorded information on BSI at local and regional hospitals. The exposures were: baseline body mass index (BMI) measurements; and self-reported smoking habits, leisure time physical activity and alcohol intake. The outcomes were hazard ratios (HR) of BSI and BSI mortality. Results: During 810 453 person-years and median follow-up of 14.8 years, 1844 (2.9%) participants experienced at least one BSI and 396 (0.62%) died from BSI. Compared with normal weight participants (BMI 18.5-24.9 kg/m2), the age- and sex-adjusted risk of a first-time BSI was 31% [95% confidence interval (CI) 14-51%] higher at BMI 30.0-34.9 kg/m2, 87% (95% CI 50-135%) higher at BMI 35.0-39.9 kg/m2 and 210% (95% CI 117-341%) higher at BMI >/= 40.0 kg/m2. The risk of BSI mortality was similarly increased. Compared with never-smokers, current smokers had 51% (95% CI 34-70%) and 75% (95% CI 34-129%) higher risks of BSI and BSI mortality, respectively. Physically inactive participants had 71% (95% CI 42-107%) and 108% (95% CI 37-216%) higher risks of BSI and BSI mortality, respectively, compared with the most physically active. Conclusions: Obesity, smoking and physical inactivity carry increased risk of BSI and BSI mortality.  
  Address Department of Endocrinology, St Olavs Hospital, Trondheim University Hospital, Trondheim, Norway  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0300-5771 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:28637260 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 1969  
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Author Rasouli, B.; Grill, V.; Midthjell, K.; Ahlbom, A.; Andersson, T.; Carlsson, S. url  doi
  Title Smoking is associated with reduced risk of autoimmune diabetes in adults contrasting with increased risk in overweight men with type 2 diabetes: a 22-year follow-up of the HUNT study Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Diabetes Care Abbreviated Journal Diabetes Care  
  Volume 36 Issue 3 Pages 604-610  
  Keywords Adult; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/*epidemiology/*etiology; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/*epidemiology; Female; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; Overweight/*epidemiology; Smoking/*adverse effects; Young Adult  
  Abstract OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between smoking habits and risk of autoimmune diabetes in adults and of type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We used data from the three surveys of the Nord-Trondelag Health Study, spanning 1984-2008 and including a cohort of 90,819 Norwegian men (48%) and women (52%) aged >/=20 years. Incident cases of diabetes were identified by questionnaire and classified as type 2 diabetes (n = 1,860) and autoimmune diabetes (n = 140) based on antibodies to glutamic decarboxylase (GADA) and age at onset of diabetes. Hazard ratios (HRs) adjusted for confounders were estimated by Cox proportional hazards regression models. RESULTS: The risk of autoimmune diabetes was reduced by 48% (HR 0.52 [95% CI 0.30-0.89]) in current smokers and 58% in heavy smokers (0.42 [0.18-0.98]). The reduced risk was positively associated with number of pack-years. Heavy smoking was associated with lower levels of GADA (P = 0.001) and higher levels of C-peptide (964 vs. 886 pmol/L; P = 0.03). In contrast, smoking was associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes, restricted to overweight men (1.33 [1.10-1.61]). Attributable proportion due to an interaction between overweight and heavy smoking was estimated to 0.40 (95% CI 0.23-0.57). CONCLUSIONS: In this epidemiological study, smoking is associated with a reduced risk of autoimmune diabetes, possibly linked to an inhibitory effect on the autoimmune process. An increased risk of type 2 diabetes was restricted to overweight men.  
  Address Department of Epidemiology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. bahareh.rasouli@ki.se  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0149-5992 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:23172971; PMC3579345 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 1569  
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Author Rostad, B.; Schmidt, L.; Sundby, J.; Schei, B. url  doi
  Title Has fertility declined from mid-1990s to mid-2000s? Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica Abbreviated Journal Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand  
  Volume 92 Issue 11 Pages 1284-1289  
  Keywords Adult; Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology; Birth Rate/*trends; Cohort Studies; Cross-Sectional Studies; Female; *Fertility; Health Surveys; Humans; Infertility/*epidemiology; Middle Aged; Norway/epidemiology; Retrospective Studies; Smoking/epidemiology; Fertility status; fertility trends; population-based  
  Abstract OBJECTIVE: To assess changes in self-reported fertility from the mid-1990s to the mid-2000s. DESIGN: The study is a retrospective population-based study. SETTING: The study applied a dataset from two cross-sectional surveys conducted in the mid-1990s and some 10 years later, inviting all women in a county in Norway. POPULATION: Women aged 50-59 years enrolled in either survey constituted two cohorts. Data on 4468 women in the first survey (Cohort 1940) and 4951 women in the latter survey (Cohort 1950) were collected by structured questionnaires. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence of fertility, infertility with subcategories subfertility and involuntary childlessness, as well as childlessness was estimated and compared between the surveys. Possible sociodemographic and lifestyle predictors of fertility were assessed at different points in time. RESULTS: Fertility declined over the two successive surveys; 87.8% of the women in Cohort 1940 were fertile compared with 84.2% of the women in Cohort 1950 (p = 0.000). The prevalence of infertility increased over time due to an increase in subfertility from 7.8 to 10.6% (p = 0.000). The level of education increased with time, as did at-risk alcohol consumption and smoking, and these factors were adversely associated with fertility. The proportion of childless women increased across surveys (p = 0.004) but relatively fewer women were involuntarily childless in Cohort 1950 than in Cohort 1940 (p = 0.543). CONCLUSION: Fertility, measured at 10-year intervals, declined significantly. The decline in fertility was related to changes in subfertility. Adjustments for sociodemographic and lifestyle factors did not fully explain the decline in fertility.  
  Address Department of Public Health and General Practice, Faculty of Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0001-6349 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:23869705 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 1416  
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Author Storeng, S.H.; Sund, E.R.; Krokstad, S. url  doi
  Title Factors associated with basic and instrumental activities of daily living in elderly participants of a population-based survey: the Nord-Trondelag Health Study, Norway Type Journal Article