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Author (up) Bjorngaard, J.H.; Carslake, D.; Lund Nilsen, T.I.; Linthorst, A.C.E.; Davey Smith, G.; Gunnell, D.; Romundstad, P.R. url  doi
  Title Association of Body Mass Index with Depression, Anxiety and Suicide-An Instrumental Variable Analysis of the HUNT Study Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication PloS one Abbreviated Journal PLoS One  
  Volume 10 Issue 7 Pages e0131708  
  Keywords HUNT3; Young-HUNT  
  Abstract OBJECTIVE: While high body mass index is associated with an increased risk of depression and anxiety, cumulative evidence indicates that it is a protective factor for suicide. The associations from conventional observational studies of body mass index with mental health outcomes are likely to be influenced by reverse causality or confounding by ill-health. In the present study, we investigated the associations between offspring body mass index and parental anxiety, depression and suicide in order to avoid problems with reverse causality and confounding by ill-health. METHODS: We used data from 32,457 mother-offspring and 27,753 father-offspring pairs from the Norwegian HUNT-study. Anxiety and depression were assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and suicide death from national registers. Associations between offspring and own body mass index and symptoms of anxiety and depression and suicide mortality were estimated using logistic and Cox regression. Causal effect estimates were estimated with a two sample instrument variable approach using offspring body mass index as an instrument for parental body mass index. RESULTS: Both own and offspring body mass index were positively associated with depression, while the results did not indicate any substantial association between body mass index and anxiety. Although precision was low, suicide mortality was inversely associated with own body mass index and the results from the analysis using offspring body mass index supported these results. Adjusted odds ratios per standard deviation body mass index from the instrumental variable analysis were 1.22 (95% CI: 1.05, 1.43) for depression, 1.10 (95% CI: 0.95, 1.27) for anxiety, and the instrumental variable estimated hazard ratios for suicide was 0.69 (95% CI: 0.30, 1.63). CONCLUSION: The present study's results indicate that suicide mortality is inversely associated with body mass index. We also found support for a positive association between body mass index and depression, but not for anxiety.  
  Address Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, 7491, Trondheim, Norway  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1932-6203 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:26167892; PMC4500562 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 1706  
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Author (up) Blaauw, B.A.; Dyb, G.; Hagen, K.; Holmen, T.L.; Linde, M.; Wentzel-Larsen, T.; Zwart, J.-A. url  doi
  Title The relationship of anxiety, depression and behavioral problems with recurrent headache in late adolescence – a Young-HUNT follow-up study Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication The Journal of Headache and Pain Abbreviated Journal J Headache Pain  
  Volume 16 Issue 1 Pages 10  
  Keywords Young-HUNT, HUNT2  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: The comorbidity of headache and psychiatric symptoms is a well-recognized clinical phenomenon, but there are only limited data regarding the temporal relationship between headache and symptoms of anxiety and depression as well as behavioral problems in adolescents. This study investigates the relationship of anxiety and depressive symptoms and behavioral problems at baseline with recurrent headache at follow-up four years later. METHODS: Within the Nord-Tr[latin small letter o with stroke]ndelag Health Study (HUNT), including repeated population-based studies conducted in Norway, 2399 adolescents in junior high schools aged 12-16 years (77% of the invited) participated in Young-HUNT1 (1995-1997) and again at follow-up four years later, in Young-HUNT2 (2000-2001). The same comprehensive questionnaire that included assessment of symptoms of anxiety and depression and behavioral problems, i.e. conduct and attention difficulties was completed in both studies. In addition 1665 of the participants were interviewed about their headache complaints in Young-HUNT2. RESULTS: In adjusted multivariate analyses we found that higher scores of anxiety and depressive symptoms at baseline were associated with recurrent headache at follow-up four years later (OR: 1.6, 95%CI: 1.2-2.1, p = 0.001), evident for migraine (OR: 1.8, 95%CI: 1.2-2.7, p = 0.008) and non-classifiable headache (OR: 1.7, 95%CI: 1.0-2.8, p = 0.034), but not statistically significant for tension-type headache (OR: 1.4, 95%CI: 1.0-1.9, p = 0.053). Higher scores of anxiety and depressive symptoms at baseline were significantly associated with more frequent headache at follow-up (monthly vs. no recurrent headache OR: 1.8, 95%CI: 1.3-2.5, p = 0.001, weekly or daily vs. no recurrent headache OR: 1.9, 95%CI: 1.2-2.9, p = 0.005). Among adolescents without recurrent headache at baseline, higher scores for symptoms of anxiety and depression were associated with new onset migraine four years later (OR: 2.6, 95%CI: 1.1-4.8, p = 0.036). Higher scores of attention problems at baseline were associated with non-classifiable headache at follow-up (OR: 2.0, 95%CI: 1.3-3.4, p = 0.017). CONCLUSIONS: Results from the present study showed that symptoms of anxiety and depression in early adolescence were associated with recurrent headache four years later. Recognizing anxiety and depressive symptoms should be considered part of the clinical assessment in young headache patients, as early identification of these associated factors may lead to improved headache management.  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1129-2369 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:25595046 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 1661  
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Author (up) Blaauw, B.A.; Dyb, G.; Hagen, K.; Holmen, T.L.; Linde, M.; Wentzel-Larsen, T.; Zwart, J.-A. url  doi
  Title Anxiety, depression and behavioral problems among adolescents with recurrent headache: the Young-HUNT study Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication The Journal of Headache and Pain Abbreviated Journal J Headache Pain  
  Volume 15 Issue 1 Pages 38  
  Keywords HUNT2; Young Adult; Young-HUNT; Young-HUNT1; headache; depression; anxiety; behavioral problems  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: It is well documented that both anxiety and depression are associated with headache, but there is limited knowledge regarding the relation between recurrent primary headaches and symptoms of anxiety and depression as well as behavioral problems among adolescents. Assessment of co-morbid disorders is important in order to improve the management of adolescents with recurrent headaches. Thus the main purpose of the present study was to assess the relationship of recurrent headache with anxiety and depressive symptoms and behavioral problems in a large population based cross-sectional survey among adolescents in Norway. METHODS: A cross-sectional, population-based study was conducted in Norway from 1995 to 1997 (Young-HUNT1). In Young-HUNT1, 4872 adolescents aged 12 to 17 years were interviewed about their headache complaints and completed a comprehensive questionnaire that included assessment of symptoms of anxiety and depression and behavioral problems, i.e. conduct and attention difficulties. RESULTS: In adjusted multivariate analyses among adolescents aged 12-14 years, recurrent headache was associated with symptoms of anxiety and depression (OR: 2.05, 95% CI: 1.61-2.61, p < 0.001), but not with behavioral problems. A significant association with anxiety and depressive symptoms was evident for all headache categories; i.e. migraine, tension-type headache and non-classifiable headache. Among adolescents aged 15-17 years there was a significant association between recurrent headache and symptoms of anxiety and depression (OR: 1.64, 95% CI: 1.39-1.93, p < 0,001) and attention difficulties (OR: 1.25, 95% CI: 1.09-1.44, p =0.001). For migraine there was a significant association with both anxiety and depressive symptoms and attention difficulties, while tension-type headache was significantly associated only with symptoms of anxiety and depression. Non-classifiable headache was associated with attention difficulties and conduct difficulties, but not with anxiety and depressive symptoms. Headache frequency was significantly associated with increasing symptoms scores for anxiety and depressive symptoms as well as attention difficulties, evident for both age groups. CONCLUSIONS: The results from the present study indicate that both anxiety and depressive symptoms and behavioral problems are associated with recurrent headache, and should accordingly be considered a part of the clinical assessment of children and adolescents with headache. Identification of these associated factors and addressing them in interventions may improve headache management.  
  Address Department of Neurology, Vestfold Hospital, Tonsberg, Norway. britaj@mac.com  
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  ISSN 1129-2369 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:24925252; PMC4062897 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 1620  
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Author (up) de Ridder, K.; Pape, K.; Krokstad, S.; Bjorngaard, J.H. url  doi
  Title Health in adolescence and subsequent receipt of social insurance benefits – The HUNT Study Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen Abbreviated Journal Tidsskrift for den Norske laegeforening  
  Volume 135 Issue 10 Pages 942-948  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Cost of Illness; Female; Follow-Up Studies; *Health Status; Health Surveys; Humans; Insurance Benefits/statistics & numerical data; Insurance, Disability/*statistics & numerical data; Male; Norway; Registries; Risk Assessment; Risk Factors; Self Report; Sex Factors; Sick Leave; Social Security/*statistics & numerical data; Time Factors; Young Adult; Young-HUNT; HUNT2  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Long-term illness and work incapacity in young adulthood has consequences for both the individual and for society. The purpose of the study was to investigate the association between adolescent health and receipt of long-term sickness and disability benefits for young adults in their twenties. MATERIAL AND METHOD: An adolescent population of 8949 school students (aged 13-21 years) assessed their own health in the Young-HUNT1 Study (1995-1997). Health was measured by means of a questionnaire enquiring about chronic somatic illnesses, somatic symptoms, symptoms of anxiety and depression, sleep disturbance, poor concentration, self-reported health and smoking, and by measuring height and weight. Information about receipt of long-term benefits was retrieved from the FD-Trygd registry for the period 1998-2008 and defined as receipt of sickness benefit (>180 days/year), medical/vocational rehabilitation benefit and disability pension in the age group 20-29 years. We investigated the relationship between adolescent health and long-term social insurance benefits with logistic regression, adjusted for sex, age, follow-up time, mother's education and family composition. Siblings with different exposure and outcome were investigated to adjust for all familial factors shared by siblings. RESULTS: Each of the health measures was associated with an increased risk of long-term benefit. For example, adolescents who reported one or more somatic illnesses or poor concentration had a 5.4 and 3.4 percentage point higher risk, respectively, of receiving long-term benefits at the age of 20-29 years than adolescents who did not report somatic illness or poor concentration. Moreover the risk increased with an increase in the number of health problems. Sibling analyses supported these associations. INTERPRETATION: Health in adolescence is an indicator of increased vulnerability in the transition to the labour market. Preventing health selection during this transition should be a priority for welfare policy.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Institutt for samfunnsmedisin Norges teknisk-naturvitenskapelige universitet og Folkehelseinstitutt, Editor  
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  Notes de Ridder, KarinPape, KristineKrokstad, SteinarBjorngaard, Johan HakonengnorNorway2015/06/04 06:00Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2015 Jun 2;135(10):942-8. doi: 10.4045/tidsskr.14.0261. eCollection 2015 Jun 2. Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ deRidder2015 Serial 1802  
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Author (up) Egan, K.B.; Ettinger, A.S.; DeWan, A.T.; Holford, T.R.; Holmen, T.L.; Bracken, M.B. url  doi
  Title General, but not abdominal, overweight increases odds of asthma among Norwegian adolescents: the Young-HUNT study Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Acta Paediatrica (Oslo, Norway : 1992) Abbreviated Journal Acta Paediatr  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords Young-HUNT; HUNT2; Adolescents; Asthma; Body mass index; Obesity; Overweight; Waist circumference  
  Abstract AIM: The aim of this analysis was to examine the association between asthma and general and abdominal weight status, defined by age- and sex-specific cut-offs for body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) in adolescents. METHODS: Participants aged 12-19 years in the Young-HUNT (YH) Study (YH1 1995-1997: n = 8222; YH3 2006-2008: n = 7403) completed self-administered questionnaires in school as part of a series of cross-sectional, population-based studies conducted in Nord-Trondelag, Norway. Weight, height and WC were measured. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) for asthma, defined by self-reported physician diagnosis, were calculated. Potential effect modifiers evaluated included sex and pubertal development status (PDS). RESULTS: Asthma was reported by 11.8% of the adolescents in YH1 and 17.0% in YH3. Asthma odds significantly increased for adolescents with general (OR = 1.33; 95%CI: 1.13, 1.56), but not abdominal, overweight and increased for adolescents with general (OR = 1.34; 95%CI: 1.02, 1.75) or abdominal obesity (OR = 1.36; 95%CI: 1.16, 1.60). Underweight had no association with asthma regardless of weight assessment type, and PDS did not meaningfully influence the associations between asthma and weight. CONCLUSION: Overweight and obesity both increased the odds of asthma in 12-19 year-old Norwegians. WC did not add further information to that already provided by BMI to improve our understanding of the association between asthma and weight.  
  Address Department of Chronic Disease Epidemiology, Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, CT, USA; Yale Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, New Haven, CT, USA; Center for Perinatal, Pediatric and Environmental Epidemiology, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0803-5253 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:25131148 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 1639  
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Author (up) Hansen, E.; Sund, E.; Skjei Knudtsen, M.; Krokstad, S.; Holmen, T.L. url  doi
  Title Cultural activity participation and associations with self-perceived health, life-satisfaction and mental health: the Young HUNT Study, Norway Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication BMC Public Health Abbreviated Journal BMC Public Health  
  Volume 15 Issue Pages 544  
  Keywords HUNT3; Young-HUNT  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Leisure time activities and culture participation may have health effects and be important in pulic health promotion. More knowledge on how cultural activity participation may influence self-perceived health, life-satisfaction, self-esteem and mental health is needed. METHODS: This article use data from the general population-based Norwegian HUNT Study, using the cross-sectional Young-HUNT3 (2006-08) Survey including 8200 adolescents. Data on cultural activity participation, self-perceived health, life-satisfaction, self-esteem, anxiety and depression were collected by self-reported questionnaires. RESULTS: Both attending meetings or training in an organisation or club, and attending sports events were positively associated with each of the health parameters good self-percieved health, good life-satisfaction, good self-esteem, and low anxiety and depression symptoms. We found differences according to gender and age (13-15 years versus 16-19 years old) for several culture activities, where girls aged 16-19 years seemed to benefit most from being culturally active. The extent of participation seemed to matter. Those who had frequent participation in cultural activities reported better health outcomes compared to inactive adolecents. CONCLUSIONS: The results from this study indicate that participation in cultural activities may be positively associated with health, life-satisfaction and self-esteem in adolescents and thus important in public health promotion. Possible sex and age differences should be taken into account.  
  Address HUNT Research Centre, Department of Public Health and General Practice, Faculty of Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Forskningsveien 2, 7600, Levanger, Norway. turid.lingaas.holmen@ntnu.no  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1471-2458 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:26055410; PMC4460785 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 1717  
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Author (up) Haugland, S.H.   
  Title Parental and offspring hazardous alcohol use in the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study Type Book Whole
  Year 2014 Publication Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords HUNT3; Young Adult; Young-HUNT  
  Abstract  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis Doctoral thesis  
  Publisher NTNU Place of Publication Trondheim Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
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  ISSN ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Haugland2014 Serial 1605  
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Author (up) Haugland, S.H.; Holmen, T.L.; Krokstad, S.; Sund, E.R.; Bratberg, G.H. url  doi
  Title Intergenerational Hazardous Alcohol Use and Area Factors: The HUNT Study, Norway Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Subst Use Misuse Abbreviated Journal Substance use & misuse  
  Volume 50 Issue 14 Pages 1753-1764  
  Keywords HUNT3; Young-HUNT  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Alcohol use among adolescents has been found to be associated with parental alcohol abuse, but it's relation to more prevalent forms of hazardous drinking patterns among parents has been less explored. Few studies have included area factors when investigating alcohol use across generations. OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to investigate whether adolescent intoxication was associated with parental heavy episodic drinking (HED) and intoxication, area-level socioeconomic status (SES), and rates of area-level HED. METHODS: General Estimation Equations (GEE) was applied to analyze data from the Nord-Trondelag Health Study (2006-08) including 2,306 adolescents. Adolescent alcohol use was defined by self-reported frequency of intoxication. Parental alcohol use was defined by parental self-reports of drinking five glasses of alcohol at one occasion (HED), whether they had been strongly intoxicated, and adolescent reports of seeing parents intoxicated. Area-level SES and HED were based on data from HUNT3 and Statistics Norway. RESULTS: Parental and offspring alcohol use were associated, although this varied to some extent with gender and exposures. The strongest associations were found between offspring intoxication and offspring reports of seeing their parent intoxicated (girls: OR 3.3, 95% CI 2.3-4.7; boys: OR 3.4, 95% CI 2.4-4.7). Intoxication was more common among girls, who lived in areas with a higher level of adult HED. Living in areas with higher SES was associated with less intoxication among adolescents. CONCLUSION: Intoxication in adolescence was associated with factors at both family and area level, which emphasize the need of both population and high risk preventive approaches.  
  Address  
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  Publisher Place of Publication a Department of Psychosocial Health , University of Agder , Agder , Norway.b HUNT Research Center , Editor  
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  Notes Haugland, Siri HavasHolmen, Turid LingaasKrokstad, SteinarSund, Erik RBratberg, Grete HengEngland2015/12/10 06:00Subst Use Misuse. 2015;50(14):1753-64. doi: 10.3109/10826084.2015.1037396. Epub 2015 Dec 8. Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Haugland2015 Serial 1816  
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Author (up) Iversen, J.M.; Hoftun, G.B.; Romundstad, P.R.; Rygg, M. url  doi
  Title Adolescent chronic pain and association to perinatal factors: linkage of Birth Registry data with the Young-HUNT Study Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Eur J Pain Abbreviated Journal European journal of pain  
  Volume 19 Issue 4 Pages 567-575  
  Keywords HUNT3; Young-HUNT; Adolescent; Age Factors; *Birth Weight; Chronic Pain/*epidemiology; Female; Humans; Infant, Newborn; Male; Pregnancy; *Registries; Sex Factors; Surveys and Questionnaires; Time Factors; Young Adult  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to examine the associations of birthweight, gestation and 5-min Apgar score with self-reported chronic nonspecific pain in a large, unselected adolescent population. METHODS: The third population-based Nord-Trondelag Health Study (HUNT) included 8200 adolescents aged 13-19 years, constituting 78.2% of adolescents in Nord-Trondelag County. In the target age group, 13-18 years, data on pain frequency from 10 localizations were available from 7373 adolescents. Chronic nonspecific pain was defined as pain at least once a week during the last 3 months, not related to any known disease or injury. Chronic multisite pain was defined as chronic pain in at least three localizations, and chronic daily pain was defined as chronic pain almost every day. Perinatal data were retrieved from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway, and data were available for 7120 of the 7373 adolescents. Covariates included adolescent and maternal general health measures from the HUNT study. RESULTS: We found no consistent association between preterm birth and chronic pain and no clear association between birthweight and chronic pain complaints in adolescence. Post-term birth in boys and a low 5-min Apgar score in both sexes tended to increase the reporting of chronic pain in adolescence. CONCLUSIONS: Perinatal factors, and especially preterm birth and low birthweight, did not seem to have a major impact on pain complaints in adolescence.  
  Address  
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  Publisher Place of Publication Department of Laboratory Medicine, Children's and Women's Health, Faculty of Medicine, Norwegian Uni Editor  
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  Notes Iversen, J MHoftun, G BRomundstad, P RRygg, MengEnglandLondon, England2014/08/21 06:00Eur J Pain. 2015 Apr;19(4):567-75. doi: 10.1002/ejp.581. Epub 2014 Aug 20. Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Iversen2015a Serial 1824  
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Author (up) Jeppesen, E.; Bjelland, I.; Fossa, S.D.; Loge, J.H.; Sorebo, O.; Dahl, A.A. url  doi
  Title Does a parental history of cancer moderate the associations between impaired health status in parents and psychosocial problems in teenagers: a HUNT study Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Cancer Medicine Abbreviated Journal Cancer Med  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords HUNT-2; parental cancer; psychosocial problems; teenagers; young-HUNT  
  Abstract Severe disease in a parent is associated with increased psychosocial problems in their children. However, moderating factors of such associations are less studied. In this cross-sectional population-based controlled study we examined the moderating effects of a history of parental cancer on the association between impaired health status in parents and psychosocial problems among their teenagers. Among families with both parents responding to the adult Health Survey of Nord-Trondelag County of Norway (the HUNT-2 study) 71 couples were identified with primary invasive cancer in one parent. Their 81 teenage children took part in the Young-HUNT study. These families were compared to 322 cancer-free families with 328 teenagers. Based on self-report data the relations between three variables of parental impaired health and six psychosocial problems in teenagers were analyzed family wise by structural equation modeling. Significant associations between parental and teenagers' variables were observed in eight of 18 models. A history of parental cancer was a significant moderator which decreased four of eight significant associations. Such a history significantly weakened the associations between parental poor self-rated health and teenagers' anxiety/depression and school problems. A similar association of a history of parental cancer was found between psychological distress in parents and teenagers' feelings of loneliness and poor self-rated health. This study confirmed strong associations between impaired parental health and psychosocial problems in their teenagers. A history of parental cancer weakened several of the significant associations between parental impaired health variables and psychosocial problems in their teenagers.  
  Address National Resource Center for Late Effects, Department of Oncology, Oslo University Hospital, Radiumhospitalet, Oslo, Norway; University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway  
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  ISSN 2045-7634 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:24723456 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 1594  
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Author (up) Junker, A.; Bjorngaard, J.H.; Gunnell, D.; Bjerkeset, O. doi 
  Title Sleep Problems and Hospitalization for Self-Harm: A 15-Year Follow-Up of 9,000 Norwegian Adolescents. The Young-HUNT Study Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Sleep Abbreviated Journal Sleep  
  Volume 37 Issue Pages 579-585  
  Keywords Young-HUNT HUNT2  
  Abstract OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association between sleeping problems in adolescence and subsequent hospital admission for self-harm (SH). DESIGN: Prospective cohort study, linking health survey information on sleep problems to hospital-based patient records. SETTING: Residents of Nord-Trondelag County, Norway, aged 13-19 years in 1995-97. PATIENTS OR PARTICIPANTS: 10,202 adolescents were invited to participate in the Young-HUNT study; 8,983 (88%) completed the health survey. MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS: 10% of participants reported difficulties initiating sleep, 4% reported early morning wakening. Ninety-eight participants (27% male) were hospitalized following SH over a mean 12 years follow-up. Difficulties initiating sleep/early morning wakening were associated with increased risk of SH (HR 2.11, 95% CI 1.29-3.46, sex- and age-adjusted) compared with no problems, yet coexistent symptoms of combined anxiety/depression explained most of the association with sleep problems (fully adjusted HR 1.19, 95% CI 0.66-2.16). The HR of combined difficulties initiating sleep/early morning wakening differed in those with and without anxiety/depression at baseline (P interaction = 0.03); among those without caseness symptoms of anxiety/depression it was 5.58 (95% CI 2.02-15.40), while in those with caseness symptoms of anxiety/ depression it was 0.82 (95% CI 0.19-3.44). CONCLUSIONS: Sleep problems are common among Norwegian adolescents. The strong association between sleep problems and subsequent hospitalization for self-harm could mainly be related to coexistent symptoms of anxiety and depression. Prevention of adolescent sleep problems, anxiety and depression should be targeted when seeking to reduce and prevent self-harm. CITATION: Junker A; Bjorngaard JH; Gunnell D; Bjerkeset O. Sleep problems and hospitalization for self-harm: a 15-year follow-up of 9,000 Norwegian adolescents. the Young-HUNT study. SLEEP 2014;37(3):579-585.  
  Address Department of Neuroscience, Faculty of Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway. Department of Public Health and General Practice, Faculty of Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway ; Forensic Department and Research Centre Broset, St. Olavs University Hospital, Trondheim, Norway. School of Social and Community Medicine, Bristol University, Bristol, UK. Department of Neuroscience, Faculty of Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway ; Faculty of Health Sciences, Nord-Trondelag University College (HiNT), Levanger, Norway.  
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  Language eng Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2014/03/04  
  ISSN 0161-8105 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes 1550-9109 Junker, Asbjorn Bjorngaard, Johan Hakon Gunnell, David Bjerkeset, Ottar Journal Article United States Sleep. 2014 Mar 1;37(3):579-85. doi: 10.5665/sleep.3502. Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ 2218 Serial 1486  
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Author (up) Kaasboll, J.; Ranoyen, I.; Nilsen, W.; Lydersen, S.; Indredavik, M.S. url  doi
  Title Associations between parental chronic pain and self-esteem, social competence, and family cohesion in adolescent girls and boys--family linkage data from the HUNT study Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication BMC Public Health Abbreviated Journal BMC public health  
  Volume 15 Issue Pages 817  
  Keywords Young-HUNT; HUNT3; Adolescent; Chronic Pain/*psychology; Cross-Sectional Studies; Family Relations; Fathers; Female; Humans; Male; Mothers; *Parents; Resilience, Psychological; Risk Factors; *Self Concept; Self Report; Sex Factors; *Social Skills  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Parental chronic pain has been associated with adverse outcomes in offspring. However, knowledge on individual and family resilience factors in adolescent offspring of chronic pain sufferers is scarce. This study thus aimed to investigate the associations between parental chronic pain and self-esteem, social competence, and family cohesion levels reported by adolescent girls and boys. METHODS: Based on cross-sectional surveys from the Nord Trondelag Health Study (the HUNT 3 study), the study used independent self-reports from adolescents aged 13 to 18 years (n = 3227) and their parents and conducted separate linear regression analyses for girls and boys. RESULTS: Concurrent maternal and paternal chronic pain was associated with reduced self-esteem, social competence, and family cohesion in girls. Moreover, maternal chronic pain was associated with higher social competence in boys and reduced self-esteem in girls. The majority of the observed associations were significantly different between girls and boys. Paternal chronic pain was not found to be associated with child outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: The findings indicate that the presence of both maternal and paternal chronic pain could be a potential risk factor for lower levels of individual and family resilience factors reported by girls. Further research on the relationship between parental pain and sex-specific offspring characteristics, including positive resilience factors, is warranted. The study demonstrates the importance of targeting the entire family in chronic pain care.  
  Address  
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  Publisher Place of Publication Regional Centre for Child and Youth Mental Health and Child Welfare (RKBU) of Central Norway, Facult Editor  
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  Notes Kaasboll, JannikeRanoyen, IngunnNilsen, WendyLydersen, StianIndredavik, Marit SengResearch Support, Non-U.S. Gov'tEngland2015/08/25 06:00BMC Public Health. 2015 Aug 22;15:817. doi: 10.1186/s12889-015-2164-9. Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Kaasboll2015 Serial 1829  
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Author (up) Mangerud, W.L.; Bjerkeset, O.; Holmen, T.L.; Lydersen, S.; Indredavik, M.S. url  doi
  Title Smoking, alcohol consumption, and drug use among adolescents with psychiatric disorders compared with a population based sample Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Journal of Adolescence Abbreviated Journal J Adolesc  
  Volume 37 Issue 7 Pages 1189-1199  
  Keywords Young-HUNT; HUNT3; Adolescent; Alcohol; Drug use; Mental disorders; Smoking; Substance use  
  Abstract This study investigated frequencies of smoking, alcohol use, and illicit drug use by diagnostic category in 566 adolescent psychiatric patients, comparing this sample with 8173 adolescents from the general population in Norway who completed the Young-HUNT 3 survey. Frequencies of current alcohol use were high in both samples but were lower among psychiatric patients. Compared with adolescents in the general population, adolescents in the clinical sample had a higher prevalence of current smoking and over four times higher odds of having tried illicit drugs. In the clinical sample, those with mood disorders reported the highest frequencies of smoking, alcohol use, and illicit drug use, whereas those with autism spectrum disorders reported the lowest frequencies. Our results show an increased prevalence of risky health behaviors among adolescents with psychiatric disorders compared with the general population. The awareness of disorder-specific patterns of smoking and substance use may guide preventive measures.  
  Address Regional Centre for Child and Youth Mental Health and Child Welfare, Faculty of Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Pb 8905, MTFS, 7491 Trondheim, Norway; Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, St. Olav's University Hospital, 7433 Trondheim, Norway. Electronic address: marit.s.indredavik@ntnu.no  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0140-1971 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:25190498 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 1653  
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Author (up) Okkenhaug, A.; Tanem, T.; Johansen, A.; Romild, U.K.; Nordahl, H.M.; Gjervan, B. url  doi
  Title Physical activity in adolescents who later developed schizophrenia: A prospective case-control study from the Young-HUNT Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Nordic Journal of Psychiatry Abbreviated Journal Nord J Psychiatry  
  Volume Issue Pages 1-5  
  Keywords Adolescent; Bipolar disorder; Physical activity; Premorbid; Schizophrenia; HUNT3; Young-HUNT  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Adults suffering from schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders report low levels of physical activity. In addition, these patients have an increased risk of overweight and poor nutritional habits. Less is known about patterns and levels of physical activity before the onset of disease. AIMS: The purpose of the study was to investigate whether there were specific patterns of physical activity in the premorbid phase of schizophrenia and whether these participants differed from those with bipolar disorder (BD). A group of healthy controls (HC) was also included. METHODS: The study was a prospective, longitudinal, comparative cohort design in which 15 adolescents who later developed schizophrenia and 18 with later BD were compared with HC. Data were analysed using non-parametric statistical tests. RESULTS: Patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia were less physically active with fewer days per week (p < 0.05) and fewer hours per week (p < 0.05) in the premorbid phase than both BD and HC. They also participated less in team sports than HC (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that individuals who develop schizophrenia in their teens may be at risk of establishing a lifestyle harmful to health. From a preventive perspective it is important to gain more knowledge about the connections between health habits and later development of disease.  
  Address Arne Okkenhaug, Department of Psychiatry, Levanger Hospital, North Troendelag Health Trust , Norway  
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  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0803-9488 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:26121012 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 1710  
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Author (up) Ranoyen, I.; Stenseng, F.; Klockner, C.A.; Wallander, J.; Jozefiak, T. url  doi
  Title Familial aggregation of anxiety and depression in the community: the role of adolescents' self-esteem and physical activity level (the HUNT Study) Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication BMC Public Health Abbreviated Journal BMC Public Health  
  Volume 15 Issue Pages 78  
  Keywords Young-HUNT; HUNT2; HUNT3  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Symptoms of anxiety and depression are significantly associated in parents and children, but few studies have examined associations between recurrent parental problems and offspring symptoms, and fathers have rarely been included in these studies. Additionally, few have investigated factors that may protect against familial aggregation of anxiety and depression. The aims of the present study are to examine the associations between recurrent parental anxiety/depression over a ten-year time span and offspring anxiety/depression in adolescence and to test whether two factors proposed to be inversely related to anxiety and depression, namely, adolescent self-esteem and physical activity, may moderate and mediate the transmission of anxiety/depression. METHODS: This study used data from two waves of a Norwegian community study (the HUNT study) consisting of 5,732 adolescents, ages 13-18, (mean age = 15.8, 50.3% girls) who had one (N = 1,761 mothers; N = 742 fathers) or both parents (N = 3,229) participating in the second wave. In the first wave, 78% of the parents also participated. The adolescents completed self-reported questionnaires on self-esteem, physical activity, and symptoms of anxiety/depression, whereas parents reported on their own anxiety/depressive symptoms. The data were analysed with structural equation modeling. RESULTS: The presence of parental anxiety/depression when offspring were of a preschool age predicted offspring anxiety/depression when they reached adolescence, but these associations were entirely mediated by current parental symptoms. Self-esteem partly mediated the associations between anxiety/depression in parents and offspring. No sex differences were found. Physical activity moderated the direct associations between anxiety/depression in mothers and offspring, whereas no moderating effect was evident with regard to paternal anxiety/depression. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that children of parents with anxiety/depression problems are at a sustained risk for mental health problems due to the apparent 10-year stability of both maternal and paternal anxiety/depression. Thus, preventing familial aggregation of these problems as early as possible seems vital. The associations between parental and offspring anxiety/depression were partially mediated by offspring self-esteem and were moderated by physical activity. Hence, prevention and treatment efforts could be aimed at increasing self-esteem and encouraging physical activity in vulnerable children of parents with anxiety/depression.  
  Address Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, St. Olav's Hospital, Trondheim, Norway. thomas.jozefiak@ntnu.no  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1471-2458 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:25649024; PMC4324879 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 1692  
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Author (up) Ranøyen, I; Klöckner, CA; Wallander, J.; Jozefiak, T. url 
  Title Associations Between Internalizing Problems in Adolescent Daughters Versus Sons and Mental Health Problems in Mothers Versus Fathers (The HUNT Study) Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication J Child Fam Stud Abbreviated Journal J Child Fam Stud  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords HUNT3; Young-HUNT; anxiety; depression; well-being; adolescents; parents; mental Health; familial aggregation; sex difference  
  Abstract Very little research has examined familial aggregation of different mental health problems and distinguished between mothers and fathers as well as daughters and sons in large community samples. The purpose ofthe study was to examine associations between mental health problems in mothers versus fathers and internalizing problems in adolescent daughters versus sons. This crosssectional study used data from a Norwegian community study (the HUNT3 study) consisting of 5,732 adolescents (ages 13–18) who had one (N =2,503) or both parents (N=3,229) participating. In adolescents, we measured subjective well-being (SWB), self-esteem, and symptoms of anxiety, depression, and social anxiety, and in parents, symptoms of anxiety and depression, alcohol abuse, and maternal eating problems. We analyzed data with structural equation modeling. Findings showed that both maternal and paternal anxiety and depression were significantly associated with SWB, self-esteem, anxiety/depression, and social anxiety in both daughters and sons. The results indicated that associations between these problems were not dependent on parental or offspring sex. Parental alcohol abuse and maternal eating problems were not associated with any of the measured mental health problems in adolescents. Internalizing mental health problems appear aggregated in families, but do not seem to be affected by parental or offspring sex. When clinicians meet parents or adolescents displaying mental distress, it may be beneficial to assess the mental status of the entire family in order to evaluate the need for intervention.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 1621  
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Author (up) Skrove, M.; Lydersen, S.; Indredavik, M.S. url  doi
  Title Resilience factors may moderate the associations between pubertal timing, body mass and emotional symptoms in adolescence Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Acta Paediatr Abbreviated Journal Acta paediatrica  
  Volume 105 Issue 1 Pages 96-104  
  Keywords Anxiety; Body mass; Depression; Pubertal timing; Resilience; Young-HUNT; HUNT3  
  Abstract AIM: The effects of resilience factors on associations between emotional symptoms and perceived pubertal timing or body mass in adolescence are unknown, and this study examined the moderating effects of social competence, family cohesion and loneliness. METHODS: Data were drawn from the Young-HUNT 3 study, including a self-report questionnaire and clinical measurements of weight and height from 7639 adolescents aged 13-18 years. Emotional symptoms were assessed by a five-item version of the Hopkins Symptom Checklist. Associations between pubertal timing or body mass and emotional symptoms were assessed by linear regression models. Interactions with social competence, family cohesion and loneliness were explored. RESULTS: A U-shaped relationship was found for both perceived pubertal timing and for perceived body mass and emotional symptoms. For girls, early perceived pubertal timing was more strongly associated with emotional symptoms among those who often felt lonely. For boys, late perceived pubertal timing and feeling they were fat were more strongly associated with emotional symptoms in those with low scores for social competence or family cohesion. CONCLUSION: Emotional symptoms were more strongly associated with perceived pubertal timing and body mass than actual measures and the associations were stronger for adolescents with low scores for resilience factors.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Regional Centre for Child and Youth Mental Health and Child Welfare, Faculty of Medicine, Norwegian Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Skrove, MaritLydersen, StianIndredavik, Marit SengResearch Support, Non-U.S. Gov'tNorwayOslo, Norway : 19922015/09/22 06:00Acta Paediatr. 2016 Jan;105(1):96-104. doi: 10.1111/apa.13171. Epub 2015 Oct 23. Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Skrove2016 Serial 1783  
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Author (up) Steinsbekk, A. url  doi
  Title Families' visits to practitioners of complementary and alternative medicine in a total population (the HUNT studies) Type Journal Article
  Year 2010 Publication Scandinavian Journal of Public Health Abbreviated Journal Scand J Public Health  
  Volume 38 Issue 5 Suppl Pages 96-104  
  Keywords HUNT3; Young-HUNT; Adolescent; Adult; *Complementary Therapies/methods/statistics & numerical data/utilization; Family Characteristics; Fathers/psychology; Female; Health Status; Homeopathy; Humans; Life Style; Male; Mothers/psychology; Patient Acceptance of Health Care; Questionnaires; Self Concept; Socioeconomic Factors; Young Adult  
  Abstract AIMS: To investigate characteristics of families with adolescent children who have visited practitioners of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). METHODS: The Nord-Trondelag Health Studies (HUNT) invited all inhabitants aged 13 years and older to a population-based study. The data of parents and adolescents were merged through the Norwegian family register. A family CAM visitor was a family where either the adolescent or the mother or father had visited a CAM practitioner in the previous year. The data were analyzed using multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: A total of 7,888 adolescents with mother and/or fathers were included. The prevalence of families visiting CAM practitioners was 19.8%. The odds of a family visiting a CAM practitioner was significantly associated (p < 0.01) with a father with poor self-reported global health (adjusted odds ratio (adjOR) 3.0, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.7-5.3), who exercised (adjOR 1.3, 1.1-1.5) or smoked daily (adjOR 0.7, 0.6-0.8). Family CAM visits were also associated with the mother having a recent health complaint (adjOR 1.4, 1.1-1.7) or having fair global health (adjOR 1.6, 1.2-2.0), or with the adolescent, mother or father having visited a general practitioner during the past year (adolescent adjOR 1.3, 1.2-1.5; mother 1.7, 1.5-2.0; father 1.4, 1.2-1.6). For family visits to a homeopath, the strongest association was the mother having visited a general practitioner (adjOR 1.9, 1.4-2.5). For visits to chiropractors the strongest association was whether the father was currently working (adjOR 2.1, 1.2-3.8). CONCLUSIONS: The factor most strongly associated with families' visits to CAM practitioners was a father who had poor self-reported health.  
  Address Department of Public Health and General Practice, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway. aslak.steinsbekk@ntnu.no  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1403-4948 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:21062844 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 1656  
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Author (up) Strandheim, A.; Bjerkeset, O.; Gunnell, D.; Bjornelv, S.; Holmen, T.L.; Bentzen, N. url  doi
  Title Risk factors for suicidal thoughts in adolescence--a prospective cohort study: the Young-HUNT study Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication BMJ Open Abbreviated Journal BMJ Open  
  Volume 4 Issue 8 Pages e005867  
  Keywords Preventive Medicine; Young-HUNT1; Young-HUNT2; Young-HUNT  
  Abstract OBJECTIVES: Examining the associations between health and lifestyle factors recorded in the participants' early teens and development of suicidal thoughts recorded 4 years later. DESIGN: Population-based prospective cohort study. SETTINGS: All students in the two relevant year classes in Nord-Trondelag County were invited, 80% attended both waves of data collection. PARTICIPANTS: 2399 secondary school students who participated in the Young-HUNT1 study in 1995-1997 (13-15 years old) were included in a follow-up study 4 years later (17-19 years old). PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURE: Suicidal thoughts reported at age 17-19 years. RESULTS: 408 (17%, 95% CI 15.5% to 18.5%) of the adolescents reported suicidal thoughts at follow-up, 158 (14.2%, CI 13.6% to 16.4%) boys and 250 (19.5%, CI 18.8% to 22.0%) girls. Baseline anxiety and depressive symptoms (adjusted OR (aOR) 1.9, CI 1.4 to 2.6), conduct problems (aOR 1.8, CI 1.3 to 2.6), overweight (aOR 1.9 CI 1.4 to 2.4), and muscular pain and tension (aOR 1.8, CI 1.4 to 2.4), were all associated with reporting suicidal thoughts at follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: One in six young adults experienced suicidal thoughts, girls predominating. Suicidal thoughts were most strongly associated with symptoms of anxiety/depression, conduct problems, pain/tension and overweight reported when participants were 13-15 years old. Specific preventive efforts in these groups might be indicated. Future research should investigate whether similar associations are seen with suicide/suicidal attempts as endpoints.  
  Address Department of Public Health and General Practice, Faculty of Medicine (ISM), HUNT Research Centre, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Levanger, Norway  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2044-6055 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:25142264; PMC4139646 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 1660  
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Author (up) Stray-Pedersen, M.; Helsing, R.M.; Gibbons, L.; Cormick, G.; Holmen, T.L.; Vik, T.; Belizan, J.M. url  doi
  Title Weight status and hypertension among adolescent girls in Argentina and Norway: data from the ENNyS and HUNT studies Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication BMC Public Health Abbreviated Journal BMC Public Health  
  Volume 9 Issue Pages 398  
  Keywords Adolescent Argentina/epidemiology Body Mass Index Female Humans Hypertension/complications/*epidemiology Norway/epidemiology Obesity/complications/*epidemiology Odds Ratio Overweight/*epidemiology Prevalence Young-HUNT HUNT1  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: To provide data on overweight, obesity and hypertension among adolescent girls in Norway and Argentina. METHODS: Data was obtained from two population-based, cross-sectional and descriptive studies containing anthropometric and blood pressure measurements of 15 to 18 year old girls. The study included 2,156 adolescent girls from Norway evaluated between 1995 and 1997, and 669 from Argentina evaluated between 2004 and 2005. RESULTS: Around 15% of adolescent girls in Norway and 19% in Argentina are overweight or obese. Body mass index (BMI) distribution in these two countries is similar, with a low percentage (< 1%) of girls classified as thin. Norwegian adolescents show a height mean value 8 cm taller than the Argentinean. Obesity is strongly associated with systolic hypertension in both populations, with odds ratios of 11.4 [1.6; 82.0] and 28.3 [11.8; 67.7] in Argentina and Norway, respectively. No direct association between BMI and systolic hypertension was found, and only extreme BMI values (above 80th – 90th percentile) were associated with hypertension. CONCLUSION: This study confirms a current world health problem by showing the high prevalence of obesity in adolescents and its association with hypertension in two different countries (one developed and one in transition).  
  Address Department of Mother & Child Health Research, Institute for Clinical Effectiveness and Health Policy (IECS), Buenos Aires, Argentina. strayped@gmail.com  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language eng Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2009/11/03  
  ISSN 1471-2458 (Electronic) 1471-2458 (Linking) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Stray-Pedersen, Marit Helsing, Ragnhild M Gibbons, Luz Cormick, Gabriela Holmen, Turid L Vik, Torstein Belizan, Jose M eng Comparative Study England 2009/11/03 06:00 BMC Public Health. 2009 Oct 30;9:398. doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-9-398. Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ 1983 Serial 1344  
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Author (up) Vie, T.L.; Hufthammer, K.O.; Holmen, T.L.; Meland, E.; Breidablik, H.J. url  doi
  Title Is self-rated health a stable and predictive factor for allostatic load in early adulthood? Findings from the Nord Trondelag Health Study (HUNT) Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Social Science & Medicine (1982) Abbreviated Journal Soc Sci Med  
  Volume 117C Issue Pages 1-9  
  Keywords Allostasis; Allostatic load; Biological dysregulation; Biomarkers; Norway; Self-rated health; Stability; HUNT2; HUNT3; Young-HUNT; Young-HUNT2  
  Abstract Self-rated health (SRH) is a widely used health indicator predicting morbidity and mortality in a wide range of populations. However, little is known about the stability and biological basis of SRH. The aim of this study was to map the stability of SRH from adolescence to early adulthood, and to examine the relationships between SRH and biological dysregulation, in terms of allostatic load (AL). The AL score comprises the eleven biomarkers systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), heart rate (HR), cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), triglycerides, waist-hip ratio (WHR), diabetes risk profile, glucose, C-reactive protein (CRP) and body mass index (BMI). Eleven years prospective data from the Nord-Trondelag Health Study (HUNT), Norway, were utilised. Baseline data were gathered from 9141 adolescents (mean age 15.9 years) in the Young-HUNT I survey (1995-1997) and follow-up data were gathered from the adult HUNT3 survey (2006-2008). Altogether, 1906 respondents completed both questionnaires and clinical measurements in both studies. Cross-tables for SRH at baseline and follow-up showed that SRH remained unchanged in 57% of the respondents. Only 3% of the respondents changed their ratings by two steps or more on a four-level scale. Further, linear regression analyses adjusted for age and gender revealed that SRH in adolescence predicted AL in young adulthood. Similar patterns were found for most of the individual biomarkers. The consistency found in SRH from adolescence to young adulthood, and its association with AL across time, indicate that routines for dealing with SRH early in life may be a central strategy to prevent morbidity in the adult population.  
  Address Helse Forde HF, Norway. Electronic address: hans.johan.breidablik@helse-forde.no  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0277-9536 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:25016460 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 1623  
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Author (up) Wade, K.H.; Carslake, D.; Ivar Nilsen, T.; Timpson, N.J.; Davey Smith, G.; Romundstad, P. url  doi
  Title Blood pressure and mortality: using offspring blood pressure as an instrument for own blood pressure in the HUNT study Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Scientific Reports Abbreviated Journal Sci Rep  
  Volume 5 Issue Pages 12399  
  Keywords HUNT3; Young-HUNT  
  Abstract Given that observational associations may be inaccurate, we used offspring blood pressure (BP) to provide alternative estimates of the associations between own BP and mortality. Observational associations between BP and mortality, estimated as hazard ratios (HRs) from Cox regression, were compared to HRs obtained using offspring BP as an instrumental variable (IV) for own BP (N = 32,227 mother-offspring and 27,535 father-offspring pairs). Observationally, there were positive associations between own BP and mortality from all-causes, cardiovascular disease (CVD), coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke and diabetes. Point estimates of the associations between BP and mortality from all-causes, CVD and CHD were amplified in magnitude when using offspring BP as an IV. For example, the HR for all-cause mortality per standard deviation (SD) increase in own systolic BP (SBP) obtained in conventional observational analyses increased from 1.10 (95% CI: 1.09-1.12; P < 0.0001) to 1.31 (95% CI: 1.19-1.43; P < 0.0001). Additionally, SBP was positively associated with diabetes and cancer mortality (HRs: 2.00; 95% CI: 1.12-3.35; P = 0.02 and 1.20; 95% CI: 1.02-1.42; P = 0.03, respectively), and diastolic BP (DBP) with stroke mortality (HR: 1.30; 95% CI: 1.02-1.66; P = 0.03). Results support positive associations between BP and mortality from all-causes, CVD, and CHD, SBP on cancer mortality, and DBP on stroke mortality.  
  Address Department of Public Health and General Practice, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, N-7491 Trondheim, Norway  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2045-2322 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:26198310; PMC4510525 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 1705  
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