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Author (up) Ask, H.; Langballe, E.M.; Holmen, J.; Selbaek, G.; Saltvedt, I.; Tambs, K. url  doi
  Title Mental health and wellbeing in spouses of persons with dementia: the Nord-Trondelag Health Study Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication BMC Public Health Abbreviated Journal BMC Public Health  
  Volume 14 Issue Pages 413  
  Keywords HUNT3; Dementia  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Caring for a spouse diagnosed with dementia can be a stressful situation and can put the caregiving partner at risk of loss of mental health and wellbeing. The main aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between dementia and spousal mental health in a population-based sample of married couples older than 55 years of age. The association was investigated for individuals living together with their demented partner, as well as for individuals whose demented partner was living in an institution. METHODS: Data on dementia were collected from hospitals and nursing homes in the county of Nord-Trondelag, Norway. These data were combined with data on spousal mental health, which were collected in a population-based health screening: the Nord-Trondelag Health Study (HUNT). Of 6,951 participating couples (>55 years), 131 included one partner that had been diagnosed with dementia. RESULTS: Our results indicate that after adjustment for covariates, having a partner with dementia is associated with lower levels of life satisfaction and more symptoms of anxiety and depression than reported by spouses of elderly individuals without dementia. Spouses living together with a partner diagnosed with dementia experienced moderately lower levels of life satisfaction (0.35 standard deviation [SD]) and more symptoms of depression (0.38 SD) and anxiety (0.23 SD) than did their non-caregiving counterparts. Having a partner with dementia that resided in a nursing home was associated with clearly lower life satisfaction. Compared with non-caregivers, these spouses reported lower levels of life satisfaction (1.16 SD), and also more symptoms of depression (0.38 SD), and more symptoms of anxiety (0.42 SD). CONCLUSIONS: Having a partner with dementia is associated with loss of mental health and reduced life satisfaction. The risk of adverse mental health outcomes is greatest after the partner's nursing home admission.  
  Address Division of Mental Health, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, P,O, Box 4404, Nydalen N-0403 Oslo, Norway. heas@fhi.no  
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  ISSN 1471-2458 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:24885732; PMC4041138 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 1622  
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Author (up) Bauman, A.E.; Grunseit, A.C.; Rangul, V.; Heitmann, B.L. url  doi
  Title Physical activity, obesity and mortality: does pattern of physical activity have stronger epidemiological associations? Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication BMC Public Health Abbreviated Journal BMC Public Health  
  Volume 17 Issue 1 Pages 788  
  Keywords Cardiovascular disease; Hip circumference; Waist circumference  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Most studies of physical activity (PA) epidemiology use behaviour measured at a single time-point. We examined whether 'PA patterns' (consistently low, consistently high or inconsistent PA levels over time) showed different epidemiological relationships for anthropometric and mortality outcomes, compared to single time-point measure of PA. METHODS: Data were the Danish MONICA (MONItoring Trends and Determinants in CArdiovascular Disease) study over three waves 1982-3 (time 1), 1987-8 (time 2) and 1993-4 (time 3). Associations between leisure time single time-point PA levels at time 1 and time 3, and sport and active travel at times 1 and 2 with BMI, waist, hip circumference and mortality (death from coronary heart disease (CHD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD)) were compared to 'PA patterns' spanning multiple time points. PA pattern classified participants' PA as either 1) inactive or low PA at both time points; 2) moderate level PA at time 1 and high activity at time 3; or 3) a 'mixed PA pattern' indicating a varying levels of activity over time. Similarly, sport and active travel were also classified as indicating stable low, stable high and mixed patterns. RESULTS: The moderately and highly active groups for PA at times 1 and 3 had up to 1.7 cm lower increase in waist circumference compared with the inactive/low active group. Across 'PA patterns', 'active maintainers' had a 2.0 cm lower waist circumference than 'inactive/low maintainers'. Waist circumference was inversely related to sport but not active travel. CHD risk did not vary by activity levels at time 1, but was reduced significantly by 43% for high PA at time 3 (vs 'inactive' group) and among 'active maintainers' (vs 'inactive/low maintainers') by 62%. 'Sport pattern' showed stronger reductions in mortality for cardiovascular disease and CHD deaths among sport maintainers, than the single time point measures. CONCLUSIONS: PA patterns demonstrated a stronger association with a number of anthropometric and mortality outcomes than the single time-point measures. Operationalising PA as a sustained behavioural pattern may address some of the known under-estimation of risk for poor health in PA self-report measurements and better reflect exposure for epidemiological analysis of risk of health outcomes.  
  Address Copenhagen Center for Preventive Medicine, Glostrup Hospital, Copenhagen Capital Region, Denmark  
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  Notes PMID:28982371; PMCID:PMC5629749 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 1880  
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Author (up) Beenackers, M.A.; Doiron, D.; Fortier, I.; Noordzij, J.M.; Reinhard, E.; Courtin, E.; Bobak, M.; Chaix, B.; Costa, G.; Dapp, U.; Diez Roux, A.V.; Huisman, M.; Grundy, E.M.; Krokstad, S.; Martikainen, P.; Raina, P.; Avendano, M.; van Lenthe, F.J. url  doi
  Title MINDMAP: establishing an integrated database infrastructure for research in ageing, mental well-being, and the urban environment Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication BMC Public Health Abbreviated Journal BMC Public Health  
  Volume 18 Issue 1 Pages 158  
  Keywords *Aging; Canada; *Cities; Cohort Studies; Databases as Topic/*organization & administration; Europe; Humans; Information Storage and Retrieval; *Mental Health; Research/*organization & administration; Russia; United States; Urban Health; *Ageing; *Cohort studies; *Data integration; *Database; *Mental well-being; *Urban health  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Urbanization and ageing have important implications for public mental health and well-being. Cities pose major challenges for older citizens, but also offer opportunities to develop, test, and implement policies, services, infrastructure, and interventions that promote mental well-being. The MINDMAP project aims to identify the opportunities and challenges posed by urban environmental characteristics for the promotion and management of mental well-being and cognitive function of older individuals. METHODS: MINDMAP aims to achieve its research objectives by bringing together longitudinal studies from 11 countries covering over 35 cities linked to databases of area-level environmental exposures and social and urban policy indicators. The infrastructure supporting integration of this data will allow multiple MINDMAP investigators to safely and remotely co-analyse individual-level and area-level data. Individual-level data is derived from baseline and follow-up measurements of ten participating cohort studies and provides information on mental well-being outcomes, sociodemographic variables, health behaviour characteristics, social factors, measures of frailty, physical function indicators, and chronic conditions, as well as blood derived clinical biochemistry-based biomarkers and genetic biomarkers. Area-level information on physical environment characteristics (e.g. green spaces, transportation), socioeconomic and sociodemographic characteristics (e.g. neighbourhood income, residential segregation, residential density), and social environment characteristics (e.g. social cohesion, criminality) and national and urban social policies is derived from publically available sources such as geoportals and administrative databases. The linkage, harmonization, and analysis of data from different sources are being carried out using piloted tools to optimize the validity of the research results and transparency of the methodology. DISCUSSION: MINDMAP is a novel research collaboration that is combining population-based cohort data with publicly available datasets not typically used for ageing and mental well-being research. Integration of various data sources and observational units into a single platform will help to explain the differences in ageing-related mental and cognitive disorders both within as well as between cities in Europe, the US, Canada, and Russia and to assess the causal pathways and interactions between the urban environment and the individual determinants of mental well-being and cognitive ageing in older adults.  
  Address Department of Human Geography and Spatial Planning, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands  
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  Notes PMID:29351781; PMCID:PMC5775623 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 2071  
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Author (up) Bjornelv S, Lyndersen S, Mykletun A, Holmen TL   
  Title Changes in BMI-distribution from 1966-69 to 1995-97 in adolesvents: The Young-HUNT Study Norway Type Journal Article
  Year 2007 Publication BMC Public Health 2007 Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 7 Issue Pages 279  
  Keywords HUNT2  
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  Notes HUNT_ID:847. HUNT2 Approved no  
  Call Number Serial 825  
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Author (up) Bratberg GH, Nilsen TIL, Holmen TL, Vatten LJ   
  Title Early sexual maturation, central adiposity and subsequent overweight in late adolescence. A four-year follow-up of 1605 adolescent Norwegian boys and girls: the Young-HUNT study Type Journal Article
  Year 2007 Publication BMC Public Health 2007 Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 7 Issue Pages 54  
  Keywords HUNT2  
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  Notes HUNT_ID:820. HUNT2 Approved no  
  Call Number Serial 800  
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Author (up) Bratberg, G.H.; S, C.W.; Wilsnack, R.; Havas Haugland, S.; Krokstad, S.; Sund, E.R.; Bjorngaard, J.H. url  doi
  Title Gender differences and gender convergence in alcohol use over the past three decades (1984-2008), The HUNT Study, Norway Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication BMC Public Health Abbreviated Journal BMC public health  
  Volume 16 Issue 1 Pages 723  
  Keywords  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: To examine changes in men's and women's drinking in Norway over a 20-year period, in order to learn whether such changes have led to gender convergence in alcohol drinking. METHODS: Repeated cross-sectional studies (in 1984-86, 1995-97, and 2006-08) of a large general population living in a geographically defined area (county) in Norway. Information about alcohol drinking is based on self-report questionnaires. Not all measures were assessed in all three surveys. RESULTS: Adult alcohol drinking patterns have changed markedly over a 20-year period. Abstaining has become rarer while consumption and rates of recent drinking and problematic drinking have increased. Most changes were in the same direction for men and women, but women have moved towards men's drinking patterns in abstaining, recent drinking, problematic drinking and consumption. Intoxication (among recent drinkers) has decreased in both genders, but more in men than in women. The declines in gender differences, however, were age-specific and varied depending on which drinking behavior and which beverage was taken into account. CONCLUSIONS: There has been a gender convergence in most drinking behaviours, including lifetime history of problem drinking, over the past 2-3 decades in this Norwegian general population, but the reasons for this convergence appear to be complex.  
  Address  
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  Publisher Place of Publication HUNT Research Centre, Department of Public Health and General Practice, Faculty of Medicine, Norwegi Editor  
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  Notes Bratberg, Grete HelenC Wilsnack, SharonWilsnack, RichardHavas Haugland, SiriKrokstad, SteinarSund, Erik ReidarBjorngaard, Johan HaakonENG2016/08/06 06:00BMC Public Health. 2016 Aug 5;16(1):723. Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Bratberg2016 Serial 1732  
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Author (up) Cuypers, K.; De Ridder, K.; Kvaloy, K.; Knudtsen, M.S.; Krokstad, S.; Holmen, J.; Holmen, T.L. url  doi
  Title Leisure time activities in adolescence in the presence of susceptibility genes for obesity: risk or resilience against overweight in adulthood? The HUNT study Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication BMC Public Health Abbreviated Journal BMC Public Health  
  Volume 12 Issue Pages 820  
  Keywords Adolescent; Body Mass Index; Female; Genetic Predisposition to Disease/*genetics; Genotype; Humans; *Leisure Activities; Male; Norway; Obesity/*genetics/*prevention & control; Overweight/genetics/prevention & control; Population Surveillance; Questionnaires; Waist Circumference/physiology; Young Adult  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Environment, health behavior, and genetic background are important in the development of obesity. Adolescents spend substantial part of daily leisure time on cultural and social activities, but knowledge about the effects of participation in such activities on weight is limited. METHODS: A number of 1450 adolescents from the Norwegian HUNT study (1995-97) were followed-up in 2006-08 as young adults. Phenotypic data on lifestyle and anthropometric measures were assessed using questionnaires and standardized clinical examinations. Genotypic information on 12 established obesity-susceptibility loci were available for analyses. Generalized estimating equations were used to examine the associations between cultural and social activities in adolescence and adiposity measures in young adulthood. In addition, interaction effects of a genetic predisposition score by leisure time activities were tested. RESULTS: In girls, participation in cultural activities was negatively associated with waist circumference (WC) (B = -0.04, 95%CI: -0.08 to -0.00) and with waist-hip ratio (WHR) (B = -0.058, 95%CI: -0.11 to -0.01). However, participation in social activities was positively associated with WC (B = 0.040, CI: 0.00 to 0.08) in girls and with BMI (B = 0.027, CI: 0.00 to 0.05) in boys. The effect of the obesity-susceptibility genetic variants on anthropometric measures was lower in adolescents with high participation in cultural activities compared to adolescents with low participation. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that the effects of cultural activities on body fat are different from the effects of participation in social activities. The protective influence of cultural activities in female adolescents against overweight in adulthood and their moderating effect on obesity-susceptibility genes suggest that even cultural activities may be useful in public health strategies against obesity.  
  Address HUNT Research Center, Department of Public Health and General Practice, Faculty of Medicine, Norwegian, University of Science and Technology, Forskningsveien 2, 7600, Levanger, Norway. koenraad.cuypers@ntnu.no  
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  Notes PMID:22998931; PMC3491037 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 1511  
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Author (up) Dale, O.; Borchgrevink, P.C.; Fredheim, O.M.S.; Mahic, M.; Romundstad, P.; Skurtveit, S. url  doi
  Title Prevalence of use of non-prescription analgesics in the Norwegian HUNT3 population: Impact of gender, age, exercise and prescription of opioids Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication BMC Public Health Abbreviated Journal BMC Public Health  
  Volume 15 Issue 1 Pages 461  
  Keywords HUNT3  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: There are concerns about potential increasing use of over-the-counter (OTC) analgesics. The aims of this study were to examine 1) the prevalence of self-reported use of OTC analgesics; 2) the prevalence of combining prescription analgesics drugs with OTC analgesics and 3) whether lifestyle factors such as physical activity were associated with prevalence of daily OTC analgesic use. METHODS: Questionnaire data from the Nord-Trondelag health study (HUNT3, 2006-08), which includes data from 40,000 adult respondents. The questionnaire included questions on use of OTC analgesics, socioeconomic conditions, health related behaviour, symptoms and diseases. Data were linked to individual data from the Norwegian Prescription Database. A logistic regression was used to investigate the association between different factors and daily use of paracetamol and/or non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in patients with and without chronic pain. RESULTS: The prevalence of using OTC analgesics at least once per week in the last month was 47%. Prevalence of paracetamol use was almost 40%, compared to 19% and 8% for NSAIDs and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), respectively. While the use of NSAIDs decreased and the use of ASA increased with age, paracetamol consumption was unaffected by age. Overall more women used OTC analgesics. About 3-5% of subjects using OTC analgesics appeared to combine these with the same analgesic on prescription. Among subjects reporting chronic pain the prevalence of OTC analgesic use was almost twice as high as among subjects without chronic pain. Subjects with little physical activity had 1.5-4 times greater risk of daily use of OTC compared to physically active subjects. CONCLUSIONS: Use of OTC analgesics is prevalent, related to chronic pain, female gender and physical inactivity.  
  Address Norwegian Centre of Addiction Research, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway. svetlana.skurtveit@medisin.uio.no  
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  Notes PMID:25934132; PMC4428499 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 1696  
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Author (up) De Ridder, K.A.A.; Pape, K.; Cuypers, K.; Johnsen, R.; Holmen, T.L.; Westin, S.; Bjorngaard, J.H. url  doi
  Title High school dropout and long-term sickness and disability in young adulthood: a prospective propensity score stratified cohort study (the Young-HUNT study) Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication BMC Public Health Abbreviated Journal BMC Public Health  
  Volume 13 Issue Pages 941  
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  Abstract BACKGROUND: High school dropout and long-term sickness absence/disability pension in young adulthood are strongly associated. We investigated whether common risk factors in adolescence may confound this association. METHODS: Data from 6612 school-attending adolescents (13-20 years old) participating in the Norwegian Young-HUNT1 Survey (1995-1997) was linked to long-term sickness absence or disability pension from age 24-29 years old, recorded in the Norwegian Labour and Welfare Organisation registers (1998-2008). We used logistic regression to estimate risk differences of sickness or disability for school dropouts versus completers, adjusting for health, health-related behaviours, psychosocial factors, school problems, and parental socioeconomic position. In addition, we stratified the regression models of sickness and disability following dropout across the quintiles of the propensity score for high school dropout. RESULTS: The crude absolute risk difference for long-term sickness or disability for a school dropout compared to a completer was 0.21% or 21% points (95% confidence interval (CI), 17 to 24). The adjusted risk difference was reduced to 15% points (95% CI, 12 to 19). Overall, high school dropout increased the risk for sickness or disability regardless of the risk factor level present for high school dropout. CONCLUSION: High school dropouts have a strongly increased risk for sickness and disability in young adulthood across all quintiles of the propensity score for dropout, i.e. independent of own health, family and socioeconomic factors in adolescence. These findings reveal the importance of early prevention of dropout where possible, combined with increased attention to labour market integration and targeted support for those who fail to complete school.  
  Address Department of Public Health and General Practice, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, 7491 Trondheim, Norway. karin.de.ridder@ntnu.no  
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  Notes PMID:24103558 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 1456  
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Author (up) Ernstsen, L.; Strand, B.H.; Nilsen, S.M.; Espnes, G.A.; Krokstad, S. url  doi
  Title Trends in absolute and relative educational inequalities in four modifiable ischaemic heart disease risk factors: repeated cross-sectional surveys from the Nord-Trondelag Health Study (HUNT) 1984-2008 Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication BMC Public Health Abbreviated Journal BMC Public Health  
  Volume 12 Issue Pages 266  
  Keywords Adult; Cross-Sectional Studies; Diabetes Mellitus/*epidemiology; *Educational Status; Female; Humans; Hypercholesterolemia/*epidemiology; Hypertension/*epidemiology; Male; Middle Aged; Myocardial Ischemia/*epidemiology; Norway/epidemiology; Risk Factors; Smoking/*epidemiology  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: There has been an overall decrease in incident ischaemic heart disease (IHD), but the reduction in IHD risk factors has been greater among those with higher social position. Increased social inequalities in IHD mortality in Scandinavian countries is often referred to as the Scandinavian “public health puzzle”. The objective of this study was to examine trends in absolute and relative educational inequalities in four modifiable ischaemic heart disease risk factors (smoking, diabetes, hypertension and high total cholesterol) over the last three decades among Norwegian middle-aged women and men. METHODS: Population-based, cross-sectional data from The Nord-Trondelag Health Study (HUNT): HUNT 1 (1984-1986), HUNT 2 (1995-1997) and HUNT 3 (2006-2008), women and men 40-59 years old. Educational inequalities were assessed using the Slope Index of Inequality (SII) and The Relative Index of Inequality (RII). RESULTS: Smoking prevalence increased for all education groups among women and decreased in men. Relative and absolute educational inequalities in smoking widened in both genders, with significantly higher absolute inequalities among women than men in the two last surveys. Diabetes prevalence increased in all groups. Relative inequalities in diabetes were stable, while absolute inequalities increased both among women (p = 0.05) and among men (p = 0.01). Hypertension prevalence decreased in all groups. Relative inequalities in hypertension widened over time in both genders. However, absolute inequalities in hypertension decreased among women (p = 0.05) and were stable among men (p = 0.33). For high total cholesterol relative and absolute inequalities remained stable in both genders. CONCLUSION: Widening absolute educational inequalities in smoking and diabetes over the last three decades gives rise to concern. The mechanisms behind these results are less clear, and future studies are needed to assess if educational inequalities in secondary prevention of IHD are larger compared to educational inequalities in primary prevention of IHD. Continued monitoring of IHD risk factors at the population level is therefore warranted. The results emphasise the need for public health efforts to prevent future burdens of life-style-related diseases and to avoid further widening in socioeconomic inequalities in IHD mortality in Norway, especially among women.  
  Address Sor-Trondelag University College, Mauritz Hansens gt 2, 7004, Trondheim, Norway. linda.ernstsen@hist.no  
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  Notes PMID:22471945; PMC3434116 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 1524  
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Author (up) Fasting MH, Nilsen TIL, Holmen TL, Vik T   
  Title Life style related to blood pressure and body weight in adolescence: Cross sectional data from the Young-HUNT study, Norway Type Journal Article
  Year 2008 Publication BMC Public Health 2008 Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 8 Issue Pages 111  
  Keywords HUNT2  
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  Notes HUNT_ID:946. HUNT2 Approved no  
  Call Number Serial 921  
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Author (up) Hansen, E.; Sund, E.; Skjei Knudtsen, M.; Krokstad, S.; Holmen, T.L. url  doi
  Title Cultural activity participation and associations with self-perceived health, life-satisfaction and mental health: the Young HUNT Study, Norway Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication BMC Public Health Abbreviated Journal BMC Public Health  
  Volume 15 Issue Pages 544  
  Keywords HUNT3; Young-HUNT  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Leisure time activities and culture participation may have health effects and be important in pulic health promotion. More knowledge on how cultural activity participation may influence self-perceived health, life-satisfaction, self-esteem and mental health is needed. METHODS: This article use data from the general population-based Norwegian HUNT Study, using the cross-sectional Young-HUNT3 (2006-08) Survey including 8200 adolescents. Data on cultural activity participation, self-perceived health, life-satisfaction, self-esteem, anxiety and depression were collected by self-reported questionnaires. RESULTS: Both attending meetings or training in an organisation or club, and attending sports events were positively associated with each of the health parameters good self-percieved health, good life-satisfaction, good self-esteem, and low anxiety and depression symptoms. We found differences according to gender and age (13-15 years versus 16-19 years old) for several culture activities, where girls aged 16-19 years seemed to benefit most from being culturally active. The extent of participation seemed to matter. Those who had frequent participation in cultural activities reported better health outcomes compared to inactive adolecents. CONCLUSIONS: The results from this study indicate that participation in cultural activities may be positively associated with health, life-satisfaction and self-esteem in adolescents and thus important in public health promotion. Possible sex and age differences should be taken into account.  
  Address HUNT Research Centre, Department of Public Health and General Practice, Faculty of Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Forskningsveien 2, 7600, Levanger, Norway. turid.lingaas.holmen@ntnu.no  
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  Notes PMID:26055410; PMC4460785 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 1717  
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Author (up) Haugland, S.H.; Holmen, T.L.; Ravndal, E.; Bratberg, G.H. url  doi
  Title Parental alcohol misuse and hazardous drinking among offspring in a general teenage population: gender-specific findings from the Young-HUNT 3 study Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication BMC Public Health Abbreviated Journal BMC Public Health  
  Volume 13 Issue Pages 1140  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adolescent Behavior/*psychology; Adult; Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology/*psychology; Alcoholic Intoxication/epidemiology; Fathers/*psychology; Female; Humans; Male; Mothers/*psychology; Norway/epidemiology; *Risk-Taking; Self Report; Sex Factors; Young Adult  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Parental alcohol misuse may negatively affect drinking behaviours among offspring, but it is unclear to what extent influences are gender-specific and dependent upon the actual drinking behaviour measured. The aim of this study was to investigate whether hazardous drinking among Norwegian teenage boys (N = 2538) and girls (N = 2494) was associated with paternal and maternal alcohol misuse (CAGE). METHODS: Definitions of hazardous drinking among offspring were based on self-reported alcohol consumption (in litres a year), frequency of drinking, and frequency of drunkenness. Based on this information, two composite measures of hazardous drinking were also constructed. Cross-sectional data from the Norwegian Young-HUNT 3 survey (2006-2008) were linked to information from biological parents who participated in the adult part of the HUNT study. RESULTS: Logistic regression analyses showed that both boys and girls with alcohol misusing fathers were more likely to report high levels of alcohol intake compared to others of the same age and gender. This was contrary to boys with misusing mothers, who reported less alcohol consumption than other boys. Among girls, but not boys, high frequency of drunkenness was associated with maternal as well as paternal misuse. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that adolescent hazardous drinking is more prevalent among boys and girls with alcohol misusing parents versus those whose parents do not misuse alcohol. However, findings were gender specific and varied depending on the drinking outcomes under investigation. More evidence-based knowledge in this field is of great importance for better understanding the possible role paternal and maternal alcohol misuse may play in the development of hazardous alcohol drinking patterns among adolescent boys and girls.  
  Address HUNT Research Center, Department of Public Health and General Practice, Faculty of Medicine, Norwegian, University of Science and Technology, Forskningsveien 2, Levanger 7600, Norway. siri.h.haugland@ntnu.no  
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  Notes PMID:24314020; PMC3866523 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 1445  
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Author (up) Hildrum B, Mykletun A, Hole T, Midthjell K, Dahl AA   
  Title Age-specific prevalence of the metabolic syndrome defined by the International Diabetes Federation and the National Cholesterol Education Program: the Norwegian HUNT 2 Study Type Journal Article
  Year 2007 Publication BMC Public Health 2007 Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 7 Issue Pages 220  
  Keywords HUNT2  
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  Notes HUNT_ID:857. HUNT2 Approved no  
  Call Number Serial 835  
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Author (up) Hildrum B, Romild U, Holmen J   
  Title Anxiety and depression lowers blood pressure: 22-year follow-up of the population based HUNT study, Norway Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication BMC Public Health 2011:11:601 Abbreviated Journal  
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  Keywords HUNT1; HUNT2  
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  Notes HUNT_ID:1133. HUNT1, HUNT2 Approved no  
  Call Number Serial 1094  
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Author (up) Idstad M, Ask H, Tambs K url 
  Title Mental disorder and caregiver burden in spouses: the Nord-Trøndelag health study Type Journal Article
  Year 2010 Publication BMC Public Health. 2010 Aug 26 Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 10 Issue Pages 516.  
  Keywords HUNT2  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Researchers generally agree that mental disorder represents a burden to the family. The present study concerns the subjective burden of living with a person with mental disorder, more specifically the association between mental disorder in the index person and subjective well-being and symptoms of anxiety and depression in the spouse. METHODS: Data were obtained from questionnaires administered to the adult population of Nord-Trøndelag County, Norway during the period 1995-1997. The present study is based on a subsample where 9,740 couples were identified. Subjective burden in spouses of persons with mental disorder was compared with subjective burden in spouses of persons without mental disorder, using analysis of variance (ANOVA). All analyses were stratified by sex. RESULTS: Adjusting for several covariates, spouses of persons with mental disorder scored significantly lower on subjective well-being and significantly higher on symptoms of anxiety and depression compared to spouses of index persons without mental disorder. Although highly significant, the effect sizes were moderate, corresponding to a difference in standard deviations ranging from .34 – .51. CONCLUSIONS: Our study supports the notion that there is an association between mental disorder in one partner and subjective burden in the spouse, but not to the same extent that have been reported in earlier studies, as our results do not indicate that a large proportion of the spouses reach a symptom level of anxiety and depression that reflects clinical mental disorder.  
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  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes HUNT_ID:1075. HUNT2 Approved no  
  Call Number Serial 1041  
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Author (up) Idstad, M.; Torvik, F.A.; Borren, I.; Rognmo, K.; Roysamb, E.; Tambs, K. url  doi
  Title Mental distress predicts divorce over 16 years: the HUNT study Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication BMC Public Health Abbreviated Journal BMC public health  
  Volume 15 Issue Pages 320  
  Keywords Adult; Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology; Divorce/*statistics & numerical data; Female; Health Behavior; Health Status; Humans; Male; Marriage/*statistics & numerical data; Mental Disorders/*epidemiology; Mental Health/*statistics & numerical data; Middle Aged; Norway/epidemiology; Proportional Hazards Models; Social Support; Socioeconomic Factors; Spouses; Stress, Psychological/*epidemiology; Time Factors; HUNT1  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: The association between mental distress and divorce is well established in the literature. Explanations are commonly classified within two different frameworks; social selection (mentally distressed people are selected out of marriage) and social causation (divorce causes mental distress). Despite a relatively large body of literature on this subject, selection effects are somewhat less studied, and research based on data from both spouses is scarce. The purpose of the present study is to investigate selection effects both at the individual level and the couple level. METHODS: The current study is based on couple-level data from a Norwegian representative sample including 20,233 couples. Long-term selection effects were tested for by means of Cox proportional hazard models, using mental distress in both partners at baseline as predictors of divorce the next 16 years. Three identical sets of analyses were run. The first included the total sample, whereas the second and third excluded couples who divorced within the first 4 or 8 years after baseline, respectively. An interaction term between mental distress in husband and in wife was specified and tested. RESULTS: Hazard of divorce was significantly higher in couples with one mentally distressed partner than in couples with no mental distress in all analyses. There was also a significant interaction effect showing that the hazard of divorce for couples with two mentally distressed partners was higher than for couples with one mentally distressed partner, but lower than what could be expected from the combined main effects of two mentally distressed partners. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that mentally distressed individuals are selected out of marriage. We also found support for a couple-level effect in which spouse similarity in mental distress to a certain degree seems to protect against divorce.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Division of Mental Health, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, PO Box 4404 Nydalen N-0403, Oslo, N Editor  
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  ISSN ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Idstad, MariannTorvik, Fartein AskBorren, IngridRognmo, KamillaRoysamb, EspenTambs, KristianengEngland2015/04/17 06:00BMC Public Health. 2015 Apr 1;15:320. doi: 10.1186/s12889-015-1662-0. Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Idstad2015 Serial 1823  
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Author (up) Kaasboll, J.; Ranoyen, I.; Nilsen, W.; Lydersen, S.; Indredavik, M.S. url  doi
  Title Associations between parental chronic pain and self-esteem, social competence, and family cohesion in adolescent girls and boys--family linkage data from the HUNT study Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication BMC Public Health Abbreviated Journal BMC public health  
  Volume 15 Issue Pages 817  
  Keywords Young-HUNT; HUNT3; Adolescent; Chronic Pain/*psychology; Cross-Sectional Studies; Family Relations; Fathers; Female; Humans; Male; Mothers; *Parents; Resilience, Psychological; Risk Factors; *Self Concept; Self Report; Sex Factors; *Social Skills  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Parental chronic pain has been associated with adverse outcomes in offspring. However, knowledge on individual and family resilience factors in adolescent offspring of chronic pain sufferers is scarce. This study thus aimed to investigate the associations between parental chronic pain and self-esteem, social competence, and family cohesion levels reported by adolescent girls and boys. METHODS: Based on cross-sectional surveys from the Nord Trondelag Health Study (the HUNT 3 study), the study used independent self-reports from adolescents aged 13 to 18 years (n = 3227) and their parents and conducted separate linear regression analyses for girls and boys. RESULTS: Concurrent maternal and paternal chronic pain was associated with reduced self-esteem, social competence, and family cohesion in girls. Moreover, maternal chronic pain was associated with higher social competence in boys and reduced self-esteem in girls. The majority of the observed associations were significantly different between girls and boys. Paternal chronic pain was not found to be associated with child outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: The findings indicate that the presence of both maternal and paternal chronic pain could be a potential risk factor for lower levels of individual and family resilience factors reported by girls. Further research on the relationship between parental pain and sex-specific offspring characteristics, including positive resilience factors, is warranted. The study demonstrates the importance of targeting the entire family in chronic pain care.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Regional Centre for Child and Youth Mental Health and Child Welfare (RKBU) of Central Norway, Facult Editor  
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  Notes Kaasboll, JannikeRanoyen, IngunnNilsen, WendyLydersen, StianIndredavik, Marit SengResearch Support, Non-U.S. Gov'tEngland2015/08/25 06:00BMC Public Health. 2015 Aug 22;15:817. doi: 10.1186/s12889-015-2164-9. Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Kaasboll2015 Serial 1829  
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Author (up) Knudsen, A.K.; Skogen, J.C. url  doi
  Title Monthly variations in self-report of time-specified and typical alcohol use: the Nord-Trondelag Health Study (HUNT3) Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication BMC Public Health Abbreviated Journal BMC public health  
  Volume 15 Issue Pages 172  
  Keywords Adult; Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Alcohol Drinking/*epidemiology; *Alcoholic Beverages; Bias (Epidemiology); Data Collection/*standards; Female; Health Surveys/*standards; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; Prevalence; Research Design; Risk Factors; Seasons; Self Report; Time Factors; Young Adult  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Aggregated measures are often employed when prevalence, risk factors and consequences of alcohol use in the population are monitored. In order to avoid time-dependent bias in aggregated measures, reference periods which assess alcohol use over longer time-periods or measures assessing typical alcohol use are considered superior to reference periods assessing recent or current alcohol consumption. Alcohol consumption in the population is found to vary through the months of the year, but it is not known whether monthly variations in actual alcohol use affects self-reports of long-term or typical alcohol consumption. Using data from a large, population-based study with data-collection over two years, the aim of the present study was to examine whether self-reported measures of alcohol use with different reference periods fluctuated across the months of the year. METHODS: Participants in the third wave of the Nord-Trondelag Health Survey (HUNT3) answered questions regarding alcohol use in the last 4 weeks, weekly alcohol consumption last twelve months, typical weekly binge drinking and typical number of alcoholic drinks consumed in a 14 day period. For each of the alcohol measures, monthly variations in reporting were estimated and compared to the overall average. RESULTS: Monthly variations in self-reported alcohol use were found across all alcohol measures regardless of reference period. A general tendency was found for highest level of alcohol use being reported during the summer season, however, the highest number of individuals who reported alcohol use in the last 4 weeks was found in January. Women reported substantially larger increase in weekly binge drinking during the summer months than men. CONCLUSIONS: Self-reports of alcohol use over longer time and typical alcohol use varies according to the month the respondents are assessed. Monthly variations should therefore be taken into account when designing, analyzing and interpreting data from population-based studies aimed to examine descriptive and analytical characteristics of alcohol use in the population.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Department of Health Registries, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Kalfarveien 31, 5018, Bergen, Editor  
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  Notes Knudsen, Ann KristinSkogen, Jens ChristofferengEngland2015/04/18 06:00BMC Public Health. 2015 Feb 21;15:172. doi: 10.1186/s12889-015-1533-8. Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Knudsen2015 Serial 1832  
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Author (up) Krokstad, S.; Ding, D.; Grunseit, A.C.; Sund, E.R.; Holmen, T.L.; Rangul, V.; Bauman, A. url  doi
  Title Multiple lifestyle behaviours and mortality, findings from a large population-based Norwegian cohort study – The HUNT Study Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication BMC Public Health Abbreviated Journal BMC Public Health  
  Volume 17 Issue 1 Pages 58  
  Keywords Adult; Aged; Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology; Cohort Studies; Diet/adverse effects; Female; Follow-Up Studies; Humans; *Life Style; Male; Middle Aged; Norway/epidemiology; Proportional Hazards Models; Risk Factors; *Risk-Taking; Sleep; Smoking/adverse effects; Social Behavior; Young Adult; *All-cause mortality; *Cardiovascular disease; *Cohort study; *Lifestyle behaviour; *Metabolic disease; *Risk factors  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Lifestyle risk behaviours are responsible for a large proportion of disease burden and premature mortality worldwide. Risk behaviours tend to cluster in populations. We developed a new lifestyle risk index by including emerging risk factors (sleep, sitting time, and social participation) and examine unique risk combinations and their associations with all-cause and cardio-metabolic mortality. METHODS: Data are from a large population-based cohort study in a Norway, the Nord-Trondelag Health Study (HUNT), with an average follow-up time of 14.1 years. Baseline data from 1995-97 were linked to the Norwegian Causes of Death Registry. The analytic sample comprised 36 911 adults aged 20-69 years. Cox regression models were first fitted for seven risk factors (poor diet, excessive alcohol consumption, current smoking, physical inactivity, excessive sitting, too much/too little sleep, and poor social participation) separately and then adjusted for socio-demographic covariates. Based on these results, a lifestyle risk index was developed. Finally, we explored common combinations of the risk factors in relation to all-cause and cardio-metabolic mortality outcomes. RESULTS: All single risk factors, except for diet, were significantly associated with both mortality outcomes, and were therefore selected to form a lifestyle risk index. Risk of mortality increased as the index score increased. The hazard ratio for all-cause mortality increased from 1.37 (1.15-1.62) to 6.15 (3.56-10.63) as the number of index risk factors increased from one to six respectively. Among the most common risk factor combinations the association with mortality was particularly strong when smoking and/or social participation were included. CONCLUSIONS: This study adds to previous research on multiple risk behaviours by incorporating emerging risk factors. Findings regarding social participation and prolonged sitting suggest new components of healthy lifestyles and potential new directions for population health interventions.  
  Address Prevention Research Collaboration, Sydney School of Public Health, The University of Sydney, Camperdown, NSW, Australia  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1471-2458 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:28068991; PMCID:PMC5223537 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 1946  
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Author (up) Krokstad, S.; Ernstsen, L.; Sund, E.R.; Bjorngaard, J.H.; Langhammer, A.; Midthjell, K.; Holmen, T.L.; Holmen, J.; Thoen, H.; Westin, S. url  doi
  Title Social and spatial patterns of obesity diffusion over three decades in a Norwegian county population: the HUNT Study Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication BMC Public Health Abbreviated Journal BMC Public Health  
  Volume 13 Issue Pages 973  
  Keywords  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: In order to develop effective preventive strategies, knowledge of trends in socioeconomic and geographical differences in risk factor levels is important. The objective of this study was to examine social and spatial patterns of obesity diffusion in a Norwegian population during three decades. METHODS: Data on adults aged 30-69 years from three cross-sectional health surveys eleven years apart in the Nord-Trondelag Health Study, Norway, HUNT1 (1984-1986), HUNT2 (1995-1997) and HUNT3 (2006-2008) were utilized. Body mass index (BMI) was used as a measure of obesity. Height and weight were measured clinically. Age standardized prevalences, absolute prevalence differences and ratios, prevalence odds ratios for BMI and the Relative Index of Inequality (RII) were calculated. Multilevel statistical models were fitted for analysing geographical patterns. RESULTS: The prevalence of obesity was systematically higher in groups with lower socio-economic status and increased successively in all groups in the population during the three decades. The relative socioeconomic inequalities in obesity measured by level of education did not change substantially in the period. In HUNT1 (1984-86) obesity was most prevalent among low educated women (14.1%) and in HUNT3 (2006-08) among low educated men (30.4%). The RII for men changed from 2.60 to 1.91 and 2.36 in HUNT1, HUNT2 and HUNT3. In women the RIIs were 1.71, 2.28 and 2.30 correspondingly. However, the absolute obesity prevalence inequalities increased, and a geographical diffusion from central to distal districts was observed from HUNT2 to HUNT3. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of obesity increased in all socioeconomic groups in this Norwegian adult county population from the 1980ies up to present time. The data did not suggest increasing relative inequalities, but increasing absolute socioeconomic differences and a geographical diffusion towards rural districts. Public health preventive strategies should be oriented to counteract the obesity epidemic in the population.  
  Address HUNT Research Centre, Department of Public Health and General Practice, Faculty of Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Levanger, Norway. steinar.krokstad@ntnu.no  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1471-2458 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:24138786; PMC3853702 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 1436  
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Author (up) Lier, R.; Nilsen, T.I.L.; Mork, P.J. url  doi
  Title Parental chronic pain in relation to chronic pain in their adult offspring: family-linkage within the HUNT Study, Norway Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication BMC Public Health Abbreviated Journal BMC Public Health  
  Volume 14 Issue Pages 797  
  Keywords HUNT2  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Little is known about the association between parental chronic musculoskeletal pain (CMP) and occurrence of CMP in the adult offspring. The main objective of this study was to assess the parent-offspring association of CMP, and also to examine possible modifying effects of age and sex. METHODS: The study includes 11 248 parent-offspring trios from the Norwegian HUNT Study with information on parental CMP obtained in 1995-97 and offspring CMP obtained in 2006-08. Logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for offspring CMP associated with parental CMP. RESULTS: Maternal and paternal CMP was associated with 20-40% increased odds of CMP in sons and daughters. Both sons and daughters had an OR of 1.6 (95% CI 1.4 to 1.9) when both parents reported CMP, compared to when none of the parents had CMP. Restricting the analyses to parental CMP that was associated with limited work ability and leisure time activity did not change the strength of the association. Further, analyses stratified by parental age +/- 65 years showed no clear difference in the estimated associations, and there was no evidence of interaction for parental sex (P >/= 0.39) or offspring age +/- 40 years (P >/= 0.26). CONCLUSIONS: This large family-linkage study show that maternal and paternal CMP are positively associated with CMP in the adult offspring, irrespective of parental and offspring age, and that the associations are strongest when both parents have CMP. Although the high prevalence of CMP in both parents and offspring suggests that not all cases are clinically relevant, the results suggest that chronic pain has a heritable component.  
  Address Department of Public Health and General Practice, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), N-7491 Trondheim, Norway. ragnhild.lier@ntnu.no  
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  Notes PMID:25096408; PMC4133600 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 1652  
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Author (up) Natland Fagerhaug, T.; Forsmo, S.; Jacobsen, G.W.; Midthjell, K.; Andersen, L.F.; Ivar Lund Nilsen, T. url  doi
  Title A prospective population-based cohort study of lactation and cardiovascular disease mortality: the HUNT study Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication BMC Public Health Abbreviated Journal BMC Public Health  
  Volume 13 Issue Pages 1070  
  Keywords  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Recent studies suggest that lactation has long-term effects on risk for cardiovascular disease in women, but the effects on cardiovascular mortality are less well known. METHOD: In a Norwegian population-based prospective cohort study, we studied the association of lifetime duration of lactation with cardiovascular mortality in 21,889 women aged 30 to 85 years who attended the second Nord-Trondelag Health Survey (HUNT2) in 1995-1997. The cohort was followed for mortality through 2010 by a linkage with the Cause of Death Registry. Adjusted hazard ratios (HR) for death from all causes and cardiovascular disease were calculated using Cox regression. RESULTS: During follow-up, 1,246 women died from cardiovascular disease. Parous women younger than 65 years who had never lactated had a higher cardiovascular mortality than the reference group of women who had lactated 24 months or more (HR 2.77, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.28, 5.99). There was some evidence of a U-shaped association, where women who reported lactating 7-12 months had a HR of 0.55 (95% CI: 0.27, 1.09). No clear associations were observed among women 65 years or older. CONCLUSIONS: Excess cardiovascular mortality rates were observed among parous women younger than 65 years who had never lactated. These findings support the hypothesis that lactation may have long-term influences on maternal cardiovascular health.  
  Address Department of Public Health and General Practice, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, PO Box 8904 MTFS, 7491 Trondheim, Norway. tone.natland.fagerhaug@ntnu.no  
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  Notes PMID:24219620; PMC3840666 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 1412  
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Author (up) Nilsen, S.M.; Bjorngaard, J.H.; Ernstsen, L.; Krokstad, S.; Westin, S. url  doi
  Title Education-based health inequalities in 18,000 Norwegian couples: the Nord-Trondelag Health Study (HUNT) Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication BMC Public Health Abbreviated Journal BMC Public Health  
  Volume 12 Issue Pages 998  
  Keywords  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Education-based inequalities in health are well established, but they are usually studied from an individual perspective. However, many individuals are part of a couple. We studied education-based health inequalities from the perspective of couples where indicators of health were measured by subjective health, anxiety and depression. METHODS: A sample of 35,980 women and men (17,990 couples) was derived from the Norwegian Nord-Trondelag Health Study 1995-97 (HUNT 2). Educational data and family identification numbers were obtained from Statistics Norway. The dependent variables were subjective health (four-integer scale), anxiety (21-integer scale) and depression (21-integer scale), which were captured using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. The dependent variables were rescaled from 0 to 100 where 100 was the worst score. Cross-sectional analyses were performed using two-level linear random effect regression models. RESULTS: The variance attributable to the couple level was 42% for education, 16% for subjective health, 19% for anxiety and 25% for depression. A one-year increase in education relative to that of one's partner was associated with an improvement of 0.6 scale points (95% confidence interval = 0.5-0.8) in the subjective health score (within-couple coefficient). A one-year increase in a couple's average education was associated with an improvement of 1.7 scale points (95% confidence interval = 1.6-1.8) in the subjective health score (between-couple coefficient). There were no education-based differences in the anxiety or depression scores when partners were compared, whereas there were substantial education-based differences between couples in all three outcome measures. CONCLUSIONS: We found considerable clustering of education and health within couples, which highlighted the importance of the family environment. Our results support previous studies that report the mutual effects of spouses on education-based inequalities in health, suggesting that couples develop their socioeconomic position together.  
  Address Department of Public Health and General Practice, Faculty of Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway. sara.m.nilsen@ntnu.no  
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  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language