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Author (up) Leivseth L, Brumpton BM, Nilsen TI, Mai XM, Johnsen R, Langhammer A. doi 
  Title GOLD classifications and mortality in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: the HUNT Study, Norway. Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Thorax Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 68 Issue 10 Pages  
  Keywords HUNT2; COPD Exacerbations; COPD epidemiology; Aged; Female; Follow-Up Studies; Forced Expiratory Volume; Humans; Lung/physiopathology*; Male; Middle Aged; Norway; Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/classification*; Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/mortality*; Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/physiopathology; Severity of Illness Index; Spirometry; Survival Analysis  
  Abstract BACKGROUND:

How different Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) classifications of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) predict mortality is unclear.

OBJECTIVE:

To examine the association of spirometric GOLD grades and the new ABCD groups with mortality, and to compare their informativeness in relation to mortality.

METHODS:

We studied 1540 people with post-bronchodilator COPD who participated in the Norwegian Nord-Trøndelag Health Study 1995-1997 and were followed up on all-cause mortality until May 2012. The associations of spirometric GOLD grades and ABCD groups with mortality were estimated by sex specific adjusted HRs from Cox regression and standardised mortality ratios. To assess the informativeness of spirometric GOLD grades and ABCD groups at predicting mortality we used the difference in twice the log-likelihood of a Cox regression model with and without each COPD classification.

RESULTS:

The distribution of participants was 28% in GOLD 1, 57% in GOLD 2, 13% in GOLD 3 and 2% in GOLD 4, in contrast to 61% in group A, 18% in group B, 12% in group C and 10% in group D. During a median of 14.6 years of follow-up, 837 people (54%) died. Mortality increased gradually from GOLD 1 to 4, while it was generally similar in groups A and B, and in groups C and D. Spirometric GOLD grades were substantially more informative than ABCD groups at predicting mortality.

CONCLUSIONS:

Spirometric GOLD grades predicted mortality better than the new ABCD groups among people with COPD from a Norwegian general population.
 
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  Notes PMID: 23611880 Approved no  
  Call Number Serial 1312  
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Author (up) Mai, X.-M.; Langhammer, A.; Chen, Y.; Camargo, C.A.J. url  doi
  Title Cod liver oil intake and incidence of asthma in Norwegian adults--the HUNT study Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Thorax Abbreviated Journal Thorax  
  Volume 68 Issue 1 Pages 25-30  
  Keywords Adult; Age Distribution; Asthma/*epidemiology/*etiology/physiopathology; Cod Liver Oil/administration & dosage/*adverse effects; Cross-Sectional Studies; Dietary Supplements/*adverse effects; Dose-Response Relationship, Drug; Drug Administration Schedule; Female; Humans; Incidence; Logistic Models; Male; Multivariate Analysis; Norway/epidemiology; Odds Ratio; Questionnaires; Reference Values; Risk Assessment; Sex Distribution; Vitamin A/administration & dosage/*adverse effects; Young Adult  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Cod liver oil is an important source of vitamin D, but also contains other fat-soluble components such as vitamin A. Before 1999, the cod liver oil formula in Norway contained a high concentration of vitamin A (1000 microg per 5 ml). High vitamin A status is associated with increased risks of several chronic diseases. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between cod liver oil intake and asthma development. METHODS: In the Nord-Trondelag Health Study, a total of 25 616 Norwegian adults aged 19-55 years were followed up from 1995-1997 to 2006-2008. Current analysis based on 17 528 subjects who were free of asthma and had complete information on cod liver oil intake at baseline. Cod liver oil intake was defined as daily intake >/= 1 month during the year prior to baseline. Incident asthma was reported as new-onset asthma during the 11-year follow-up. RESULTS: Of the 17 528 subjects, 18% (n=3076) consumed cod liver oil daily for >/= 1 month over the past year. Cod liver oil intake was significantly associated with incident asthma with an OR of 1.62 (95% CI 1.32 to 1.98) after adjustment for age, sex, daily smoking, physical activity, education, socio-economic status, family history of asthma, and body mass index (BMI). The positive association was consistent across age (< 40/>/= 40 years), sex (men/women), family history of asthma (yes/no) and BMI subgroups (< 25/>/= 25 kg/m(2)). CONCLUSIONS: Intake of cod liver oil with high vitamin A content was significantly associated with increased incidence of adult-onset asthma.  
  Address Department of Public Health and General Practice, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway. xiao-mei.mai@ntnu.no  
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  ISSN 0040-6376 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:22977130 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 1424  
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