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Author (up) Myrtveit, S.M.; Wilhelmsen, I.; Petrie, K.J.; Skogen, J.C.; Sivertsen, B. url  doi
  Title What characterizes individuals developing chronic whiplash?: The Nord-Trondelag Health Study (HUNT) Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Journal of Psychosomatic Research Abbreviated Journal J Psychosom Res  
  Volume 74 Issue 5 Pages 393-400  
  Keywords Adaptation, Psychological; Adult; Aged; Anxiety Disorders/diagnosis/psychology; Chronic Disease; Cohort Studies; Compensation and Redress; Female; Health Services/utilization; Health Surveys; Humans; Illness Behavior; Male; Middle Aged; Norway; Pain Measurement/psychology; Prescription Drugs/therapeutic use; Prognosis; Prospective Studies; Risk Factors; Somatoform Disorders/diagnosis/psychology; Utilization Review; Whiplash Injuries/*diagnosis/*psychology; Young Adult  
  Abstract OBJECTIVE: Most individuals experiencing whiplash accidents recover rapidly. A considerable proportion, however, develop chronic symptoms. Psychological factors may slow recovery, possibly by increasing the likelihood of other symptoms being misattributed to, and amplified by the whiplash injury. We aimed to investigate how pre-injury mental and somatic symptoms, self-rated health, use of health-services and medications, health-behavior and socio-demographics predict the development of chronic whiplash. METHODS: Data from two waves of a large, population based study (HUNT2 (baseline) and HUNT3) were used. Individuals reporting no whiplash at baseline were identified in HUNT3. Characteristics reported at baseline were compared between those who had developed chronic whiplash in HUNT3 (n=199) and those who had not (n=20,600), using Pearson's chi-squared tests, independent sample t-tests and logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: Individuals developing chronic whiplash reported worse baseline health than those reporting no chronic whiplash. Poor self-rated health was a strong risk factor for subsequent chronic whiplash (OR=2.26, 95%CI: 1.68-3.04). Musculoskeletal pain also increased the risk (OR=1.21, 95%CI: 1.15-1.26), as did diffuse somatic symptoms (OR=2.09, 95%CI: 1.47-2.96), use of different health services (OR=1.31, 95%CI: 1.19-1.45), high use of medications (OR=1.28, 95%CI: 1.14-1.43) and symptoms of anxiety (OR=1.93, 95%CI: 1.39-2.68). Physical activity was protective (OR=0.67, 95%CI: 0.49-0.91). Most socio-demographic variables were not significantly associated with chronic whiplash. CONCLUSION: Poor somatic and mental pre-injury health increased the risk of subsequent chronic whiplash. This suggests that chronic whiplash is not merely an organic disorder, and highlights the importance of individual expectations, symptom reattribution and amplification in development of chronic whiplash.  
  Address Department of Clinical Medicine II, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0022-3999 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:23597326 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 1413  
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