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Author (up) Kvalheim, S.; Sandven, I.; Hagen, K.; Zwart, J.-A. url  doi
  Title Smoking as a risk factor for chronic musculoskeletal complaints is influenced by age. The HUNT study Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Pain Abbreviated Journal Pain  
  Volume 154 Issue 7 Pages 1073-1079  
  Keywords Adult; Age Distribution; Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Arthralgia/*diagnosis/*epidemiology; Chronic Pain/*diagnosis/*epidemiology; Comorbidity; Educational Status; Female; Humans; Incidence; Longitudinal Studies; Male; Middle Aged; Norway/epidemiology; Risk Factors; Sex Distribution; Smoking/*epidemiology; Young Adult  
  Abstract Chronic musculoskeletal complaints (MSCs) are among the major health problems, and cross-sectional studies suggest an association between smoking and MSCs. The causal relationship, however, is not known. The present study is designed to assess the association between smoking and chronic MSCs, and is based on data from a large longitudinal cohort study of all inhabitants 20years in Nord-Trondelag County (Helse Undersokelsen i Nord-Trondelag -HUNT), conducted in 1995-97 (HUNT 2) and 2006-08 (HUNT 3). The study population consisted of 15,134 subjects without chronic MSCs and valid exposure data on smoking at baseline (HUNT 2). The outcome was defined as presence of chronic MSCs at follow-up (HUNT 3). The results show that smoking at baseline represents a 20% increased risk (IRR=1.20, 95% CI 1.14-1.27, P=0.0001) for chronic MSCs at follow-up. The risk for chronic MSCs by daily smoking decreased with increasing age up to 50years; after this, there was no significant association. The results show that modifiable risk factors like smoking should be included in public health intervention programs for MSCs.  
  Address Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0304-3959 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:23623251 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 1434  
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