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Author (up) Gustad, L.T.; Laugsand, L.E.; Janszky, I.; Dalen, H.; Bjerkeset, O. url  doi
  Title Symptoms of anxiety and depression and risk of acute myocardial infarction: the HUNT 2 study Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication European Heart Journal Abbreviated Journal Eur Heart J  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords Acute myocardial infarction; Anxiety; Depression; Epidemiology; Prospective; Risk  
  Abstract AIMS: The nature of the association of depression and anxiety with risk for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) remains unclear. We aimed to study the prospective association of single and recurrent self-reported symptoms of anxiety and depression with a risk of AMI in a large Norwegian population based cohort. METHODS AND RESULTS: In the second wave of the Nord-Trondelag Health Study (HUNT2, 1995-97) baseline data on anxiety and depression symptoms, sociodemographic variables, health status including cardiovascular risk factors and common chronic disorders were registered for 57 953 adult men and women free of cardiovascular disease. The cohort was followed up during a mean (SD) 11.4 (2.9) years for a first AMI from baseline through 2008. A total of 2111 incident AMIs occurred, either identified at hospitals or by the National Cause of Death Registry. The multi-adjusted hazard ratios were 1.31 (95% CI 1.03-1.66) for symptoms of depression and 1.25 (CI 0.99-1.57) for anxiety. Two episodes of mixed symptoms of anxiety and depression (MSAD), reported 10 years apart, increased the risk for AMI by 52% (11-108%). After exclusion of the first 5 years of follow-up, the association of depression symptoms with AMI risk was attenuated. Relative risk for AMI with anxiety symptoms and MSAD weakened when participants with chronic disorders were excluded. CONCLUSION: Self-reported symptoms of depression and anxiety, especially if recurrent, were moderately associated with the risk of incident AMI. We had some indications that these associations might partly reflect reverse causation or confounding from common chronic diseases.  
  Address Department of Internal Medicine, Levanger Hospital, Nord-Trondelag Hospital Trust, Kirkegata 2, 7600 Levanger, Norway  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0195-668X ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:24057077 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 1448  
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