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Author (up) Gudmundsdottir, S.L.; Flanders, W.D.; Augestad, L.B. url  doi
  Title Physical activity and cardiovascular risk factors at menopause: the Nord-Trondelag health study Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Climacteric : the Journal of the International Menopause Society Abbreviated Journal Climacteric  
  Volume 16 Issue 4 Pages 438-446  
  Keywords Adult; Blood Glucose/analysis; Blood Pressure; Body Mass Index; Body Weight; Cardiovascular Diseases/*epidemiology; Cholesterol, HDL/blood; *Exercise; Female; Follow-Up Studies; Health Surveys; Humans; *Menopause; Metabolic Diseases/epidemiology; Middle Aged; Norway/epidemiology; Premenopause/physiology; Questionnaires; Risk Factors; Triglycerides/blood; Waist-Hip Ratio  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Lowered physical activity levels may partially explain changes in metabolic risk factors in women after menopause. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the association between physical activity and metabolic risk factors at baseline and after 11 years, as well as the change in that association over time in women who were premenopausal and >/= 40 years at baseline. METHODS: Subjects in a Norwegian population-based health survey answered questionnaires and had body and serum measurements during 1995-1997 (HUNT 2) and in a follow-up study during 2006-2008 (HUNT 3). Repeated-measures analyses were used to estimate the association between physical activity and metabolic factors, adjusting for age, smoking status, education, alcohol intake, and parity. Adjustment for hormonal treatment and medication was made, as appropriate. RESULTS: In women remaining premenopausal, a higher physical activity score in HUNT 3 was associated with lower weight (p < 0.01) and waist-hip ratio (p < 0.01) and higher high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol in HUNT 3 (p < 0.01). In women that were postmenopausal by the time of follow-up, a higher physical activity score in HUNT 3 was associated with lower weight (p < 0.01), waist-hip ratio (p < 0.01), triglycerides (p < 0.01), and higher total cholesterol (p < 0.05), HDL cholesterol (p < 0.01), and diastolic blood pressure (p < 0.05) in HUNT 3. The association of total physical activity score with weight and waist-hip ratio was stronger in HUNT 3 than in HUNT 2 (p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Increased physical activity may reduce the risk of adverse outcomes and use of pharmacological management in women of menopausal age.  
  Address Department of Human Movement Science, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1369-7137 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:23347190 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 1450  
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