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Author Johansen, A.; Holmen, J.; Stewart, R.; Bjerkeset, O. url  doi
  Title Anxiety and depression symptoms in arterial hypertension: the influence of antihypertensive treatment. the HUNT study, Norway Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication European Journal of Epidemiology Abbreviated Journal Eur J Epidemiol  
  Volume 27 Issue 1 Pages 63-72  
  Keywords Adult; Aged; Antihypertensive Agents/*adverse effects/therapeutic use; Anxiety/*chemically induced/complications; Blood Pressure Determination; Cross-Sectional Studies; Depression/*chemically induced/complications; Drug Therapy, Combination; Female; Health Surveys; Humans; Hypertension/complications/*drug therapy/psychology; Logistic Models; Male; Middle Aged; Norway; Odds Ratio; Self Report  
  Abstract Antihypertensive drugs have been suggested to modulate symptoms of depression and anxiety. It is disputed whether this is due to the hypertension per se, its treatment, or both. The aim of this study was to investigate these associations in a large population sample. 55,472 participants in the Nord-Trondelag Health Study (HUNT 2, 1995-1997), Norway, who completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression rating Scale, were divided into 3 groups according to their diastolic blood pressure and antihypertensive treatment status. A cut-off of >/=90 mmHg diastolic blood pressure was used to identify hypertensive status. Differences in anxiety and depression symptom levels in untreated and treated hypertensives (all treatments) versus the normotensive reference group were explained by differences in age and gender distribution in the three groups in this study. However, the receipt of two or more antihypertensive drugs was associated with depressive symptoms alone (OR = 1.40, 95% CI = 1.03-1.90), but not with symptoms of anxiety (OR = 1.14, 95% CI = 0.83-1.57) or mixed anxiety and depression (OR = 1.19, 95% CI = 0.82-1.72) in the fully adjusted model, compared to untreated hypertension. Antihypertensive monotherapy (all agents) nor any single antihypertensive drug class were associated with symptoms of depression, anxiety, or mixed anxiety and depression. There may be a positive association between multi antihypertensive drug use and symptoms of depression, whereas this was not found in persons with symptoms of anxiety or mixed anxiety and depression. This might reflect poor antihypertensive treatment adherence leading to polypharmacy, or other unfavorable health behaviors in people with symptoms of pure depression.  
  Address Faculty of Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue (up) Edition  
  ISSN 0393-2990 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:22183137 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 1533  
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