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Author (up) Myklestad, I.; Roysamb, E.; Tambs, K. url  doi
  Title Risk and protective factors for psychological distress among adolescents: a family study in the Nord-Trondelag Health Study Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology Abbreviated Journal Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol  
  Volume 47 Issue 5 Pages 771-782  
  Keywords *Achievement; Adolescent; Adult; Bullying/*psychology; *Family Health; Female; Humans; Leisure Activities; Male; Norway/epidemiology; Outcome Assessment (Health Care); Parent-Child Relations; Parents/psychology; Regression Analysis; Risk Factors; Schools/statistics & numerical data; Self Report; Sex Distribution; *Social Support; Socioeconomic Factors; Stress, Psychological/diagnosis/*epidemiology; Students/*psychology; Substance-Related Disorders; Young Adult  
  Abstract PURPOSE: The study aimed to investigate potential adolescent and parental psychosocial risk and protective factors for psychological distress among adolescents and, in addition, to examine potential gender and age differences in the effects of risk factors on adolescent psychological distress. METHODS: Data were collected among 8,984 Norwegian adolescents (13-19 years) and their parents in the Nord-Trondelag Health Study (HUNT). The outcome measure was psychological distress (SCL-5). RESULTS: Bivariate regression analysis with generalized estimating equation (GEE) model showed that all parental self-reported variables (mental distress, substance use, social network, economic problems, unemployment and family structure) and adolescents' self-reported variables (leisure activities, social support from friends, school-related problems and substance use) were significantly associated with psychological distress among adolescents. Results revealed that in a multiple regression analysis with a GEE model, adolescent psychosocial variables, specifically academic-related problems and being bullied at school, emerged as the strongest predictors of psychological distress among adolescents after controlling for age, gender, and all parental and adolescent variables. The following psychosocial risk factors were significantly more important for girl's psychological distress compared to boys: problems with academic achievement, conduct problems in school, frequency of being drunk, smoking, dissatisfaction in school, living alone and seen parents being drunk. CONCLUSION: Academic achievement and being bullied at school were the psychosocial factors most strongly associated with psychological distress among adolescents. Parental factors had an indirect effect on adolescent psychological distress, through adolescents' psychosocial factors.  
  Address Division of Mental Health, Department of Children and Adolescents, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, P.O. Box 4404, Nydalen, 0403, Oslo, Norway. ingri.myklestad@fhi.no  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0933-7954 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:21499806 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 1555  
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