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Author (up) Nordfjaern, T. url  doi
  Title A population-based cohort study of anxiety, depression, sleep and alcohol outcomes among benzodiazepine and z-hypnotic users Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Addictive Behaviors Abbreviated Journal Addict Behav  
  Volume 37 Issue 10 Pages 1151-1157  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Aged; Alcohol Drinking/*epidemiology; Anxiety Disorders/chemically induced/drug therapy/*epidemiology; Benzodiazepines/*adverse effects; Depressive Disorder/chemically induced/*epidemiology; Female; Follow-Up Studies; Humans; Hypnotics and Sedatives/*adverse effects; Male; Middle Aged; Norway/epidemiology; Prospective Studies; Self Report; Sleep Disorders/chemically induced/drug therapy/*epidemiology; Treatment Outcome; Young Adult  
  Abstract OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to examine anxiety, depression, sleep and alcohol outcomes among individuals who were prescribed benzodiazepines or z-hypnotics in a Norwegian population-based sample (n = 58,967). METHODS: This 13 year historical cohort study obtained baseline measures of self-report anxiety, depression, sleep difficulties and alcohol use from the Nord-Trondelag Health Study (HUNT 2, 1995-1997). Information about outcomes was collected from the third wave (HUNT 3, 2006-2008) of the same epidemiological study. Prescription records of benzodiazepines and z-hypnotics were obtained from the Norwegian prescription database (NorPD, 2004-2008) and were linked to the HUNT 2 and HUNT 3 questionnaire data. RESULTS: Among the 58,967 respondents who were eligible for the study, 13,774 (23%) received at least one prescription of benzodiazepines or z-hypnotics in the period 2004-2008. Benzodiazepine use was associated with a higher risk of severe anxiety, depression and sleep outcomes. The assumption that benzodiazepine use is prospectively associated with a higher risk of problematic alcohol use was not supported. CONCLUSIONS: Consideration and discussion of the future place of benzodiazepines in treatment of anxiety and sleep difficulties in Norway could be warranted. Benzodiazepines may be efficient in reducing symptoms in the short term, but evidence from this long temporal follow-up study indicates limited positive influences in the long term.  
  Address The Drug and Alcohol Treatment Health Trust in Central Norway, Department of Research and Development, Trondheim, Norway.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0306-4603 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:22704915 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 1563  
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