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Author (up) Sivertsen, B.; Salo, P.; Mykletun, A.; Hysing, M.; Pallesen, S.; Krokstad, S.; Nordhus, I.H.; Overland, S. url  doi
  Title The bidirectional association between depression and insomnia: the HUNT study Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Psychosomatic Medicine Abbreviated Journal Psychosom Med  
  Volume 74 Issue 7 Pages 758-765  
  Keywords Adult; Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Comorbidity; Depression/*epidemiology; Depressive Disorder/*epidemiology; Female; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; Norway/epidemiology; Odds Ratio; Prospective Studies; Questionnaires; Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/*epidemiology; Time Factors  
  Abstract OBJECTIVE: Depression and insomnia are closely linked, yet our understanding of their prospective relationships remains limited. The aim of the current study was to investigate the directionality of association between depression and insomnia. METHODS: Data were collected from a prospective population-based study comprising the most recent waves of the Nord-Trondelag Health Study (HUNT) (the HUNT2 in 1995-1997 and the HUNT3 in 2006-2008). A total of 24,715 persons provided valid responses on the relevant questionnaires from both surveys. Study outcomes were onset of depression or insomnia at HUNT3 in persons not reporting the other disorder in HUNT2. RESULTS: Both insomnia and depression significantly predicted the onset of the other disorder. Participants who did not have depression in HUNT2 but who had insomnia in both HUNT2 and HUNT3 had an odds ratio (OR) of 6.2 of developing depression at HUNT3. Participants who did not have insomnia in HUNT2 but who had depression in both HUNT2 and HUNT3 had an OR of 6.7 of developing insomnia at HUNT3. ORs were only slightly attenuated when adjusting for potential confounding factors. CONCLUSIONS: The results support a bidirectional relationship between insomnia and depression. This finding stands in contrast to the previous studies, which have mainly focused on insomnia as a risk factor for the onset of depression.  
  Address Division of Mental Health, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Christiesgt 13, 5020 Bergen, Norway. borge.sivertsen@fhi.no  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0033-3174 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:22879427 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 1574  
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