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Author (up) Skaug, E.-A.; Aspenes, S.T.; Oldervoll, L.; Morkedal, B.; Vatten, L.; Wisloff, U.; Ellingsen, O. url  doi
  Title Age and gender differences of endothelial function in 4739 healthy adults: the HUNT3 Fitness Study Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication European Journal of Preventive Cardiology Abbreviated Journal Eur J Prev Cardiol  
  Volume 20 Issue 4 Pages 531-540  
  Keywords Adult; Age Factors; Aged; Aged, 80 and over; *Aging; Brachial Artery/*physiopathology/ultrasonography; Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology/*physiopathology/ultrasonography; Chi-Square Distribution; Endothelium, Vascular/*physiopathology/ultrasonography; Female; Health Surveys; Healthy Volunteers; Humans; Hyperemia/physiopathology; Linear Models; Male; Middle Aged; Norway/epidemiology; *Physical Fitness; Prevalence; Risk Factors; Sex Factors; *Vasodilation; Young Adult; Atherosclerosis; endothelial function; epidemiology; population  
  Abstract AIMS: Endothelial dysfunction is an important marker for prognosis in patients with coronary heart disease. However, there are no reference values for endothelial function in a healthy population. Our aim was to determine the distribution of flow-mediated dilation (FMD) values by gender and age in healthy adults. METHODS: FMD was measured by ultrasound during reactive hyperaemia in the brachial artery of 4739 adults aged 20-89 years, who were free from self-reported cardiovascular or pulmonary disease. Differences in FMD across age and gender were analysed by multiple linear regression. RESULTS: Total mean +/- SD FMD was 4.8 +/- 4.2%, with corresponding estimates of 4.3 +/- 3.9% for men and 5.3 +/- 4.5% for women (p < 0.001). In total, 17% had FMD </=0%, indicating endothelial dysfunction. FMD decreased with increasing age in both genders up to 70 years for men and 80 for women (p < 0.001). In women, age-related decline in FMD was steepest after age 45; in men, a steady decline after age 30. In men 80 years and older, FMD was higher than in men aged 50-79 years. CONCLUSIONS: The distribution of FMD in this study is representative of the respective age and gender groups of a healthy population and may be a useful reference for future studies. The high proportion of endothelial dysfunction came as a surprise. Its age and gender distribution suggest that FMD </=0% precedes cardiovascular disease and that it may be a powerful non-invasive biomarker for identifying high-risk individuals.  
  Address Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2047-4873 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:22456692 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 1575  
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