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Author (up) Lange, L.A.; Hu, Y.; Zhang, H.; Xue, C.; Schmidt, E.M.; Tang, Z.-Z.; Bizon, C.; Lange, E.M.; Smith, J.D.; Turner, E.H.; Jun, G.; Kang, H.M.; Peloso, G.; Auer, P.; Li, K.-P.; Flannick, J.; Zhang, J.; Fuchsberger, C.; Gaulton, K.; Lindgren, C.; Locke, A.; Manning, A.; Sim, X.; Rivas, M.A.; Holmen, O.L.; Gottesman, O.; Lu, Y.; Ruderfer, D.; Stahl, E.A.; Duan, Q.; Li, Y.; Durda, P.; Jiao, S.; Isaacs, A.; Hofman, A.; Bis, J.C.; Correa, A.; Griswold, M.E.; Jakobsdottir, J.; Smith, A.V.; Schreiner, P.J.; Feitosa, M.F.; Zhang, Q.; Huffman, J.E.; Crosby, J.; Wassel, C.L.; Do, R.; Franceschini, N.; Martin, L.W.; Robinson, J.G.; Assimes, T.L.; Crosslin, D.R.; Rosenthal, E.A.; Tsai, M.; Rieder, M.J.; Farlow, D.N.; Folsom, A.R.; Lumley, T.; Fox, E.R.; Carlson, C.S.; Peters, U.; Jackson, R.D.; van Duijn, C.M.; Uitterlinden, A.G.; Levy, D.; Rotter, J.I.; Taylor, H.A.; Gudnason, V.J.; Siscovick, D.S.; Fornage, M.; Borecki, I.B.; Hayward, C.; Rudan, I.; Chen, Y.E.; Bottinger, E.P.; Loos, R.J.F.; Saetrom, P.; Hveem, K.; Boehnke, M.; Groop, L.; McCarthy, M.; Meitinger, T.; Ballantyne, C.M.; Gabriel, S.B.; O'Donnell, C.J.; Post, W.S.; North, K.E.; Reiner, A.P.; Boerwinkle, E.; Psaty, B.M.; Altshuler, D.; Kathiresan, S.; Lin, D.-Y.; Jarvik, G.P.; Cupples, L.A.; Kooperberg, C.; Wilson, J.G.; Nickerson, D.A.; Abecasis, G.R.; Rich, S.S.; Tracy, R.P.; Willer, C.J. url  doi
  Title Whole-exome sequencing identifies rare and low-frequency coding variants associated with LDL cholesterol Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication American Journal of Human Genetics Abbreviated Journal Am J Hum Genet  
  Volume 94 Issue 2 Pages 233-245  
  Keywords Adult; Aged; Apolipoproteins E/blood/genetics; Cholesterol, LDL/*genetics; Cohort Studies; Dyslipidemias/blood/genetics; *Exome; Female; Follow-Up Studies; *Gene Frequency; Genetic Code; *Genome-Wide Association Study; Genotype; Humans; Lipase/genetics; Male; Middle Aged; Phenotype; *Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide; Proprotein Convertases/genetics; Receptors, LDL/genetics; Sequence Analysis, DNA; Serine Endopeptidases/genetics; HUNT3  
  Abstract Elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is a treatable, heritable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified 157 variants associated with lipid levels but are not well suited to assess the impact of rare and low-frequency variants. To determine whether rare or low-frequency coding variants are associated with LDL-C, we exome sequenced 2,005 individuals, including 554 individuals selected for extreme LDL-C (>98(th) or <2(nd) percentile). Follow-up analyses included sequencing of 1,302 additional individuals and genotype-based analysis of 52,221 individuals. We observed significant evidence of association between LDL-C and the burden of rare or low-frequency variants in PNPLA5, encoding a phospholipase-domain-containing protein, and both known and previously unidentified variants in PCSK9, LDLR and APOB, three known lipid-related genes. The effect sizes for the burden of rare variants for each associated gene were substantially higher than those observed for individual SNPs identified from GWASs. We replicated the PNPLA5 signal in an independent large-scale sequencing study of 2,084 individuals. In conclusion, this large whole-exome-sequencing study for LDL-C identified a gene not known to be implicated in LDL-C and provides unique insight into the design and analysis of similar experiments.  
  Address Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA; Department of Computational Medicine and Bioinformatics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA; Department of Human Genetics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA. Electronic address: cristen@umich.edu  
  Corporate Author NHLBI Grand Opportunity Exome Sequencing Project Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0002-9297 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:24507775; PMC3928660 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 1625  
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