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Author (up) Enmarker, I.; Hellzen, O.; Ekker, K.; Berg, A.G. url  doi
  Title Depression in older cat and dog owners: the Nord-Trondelag Health Study (HUNT)-3 Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Aging Ment Health Abbreviated Journal Aging & mental health  
  Volume 19 Issue 4 Pages 347-352  
  Keywords Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Aging/psychology; Analysis of Variance; Animals; *Bonding, Human-Pet; Cats; Cross-Sectional Studies; Depression/*epidemiology/*psychology; Dogs; Female; Humans; Loneliness/psychology; Male; Norway/epidemiology; Pets; Self Report; Sex Distribution; HUNT3  
  Abstract OBJECTIVE: Depression constitutes a major health problem for older people, in this study defined as people 65 years of age and older. Previous studies have shown that mental health among older people who live with animals could be improved, but contrary results exist as well. Therefore, the objective of the present population study was to compare the self-rated depression symptoms of both female and male non-pet owners, cat owners, and dog owners. METHOD: The participants in this cross-sectional population study included 12,093 people between the ages of 65 and 101. One thousand and eighty three participants owned cats and 814 participants owned dogs. Self-rated depression symptoms were measured using HADS-D, the scale of self-administered depression symptoms in HADS (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale). RESULTS: The main results showed higher mean values on the HADS-D for cat owners than for both dog and non-pet owners. The latter group rated their depression symptoms the lowest. When dividing the ratings into low- and high-depression symptoms, the logistic regression analysis showed that it was more likely that males who owned cats perceived lower depression symptoms than females who owned cats. No interactions were recognized between pet ownership and subjective general health status, loneliness, or marital status. CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide a window into the differences in health factors between older females and males who own cats and dogs in rural areas. RESULTS from population studies like ours might increase the available knowledge base when using cats and dogs in clinical environments such as nursing homes.  
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  Publisher Place of Publication a Department of Health Sciences , Nord-Trondelag University College , Steinkjer , Norway. Editor  
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  Notes Enmarker, IngelaHellzen, OveEkker, KnutBerg, Anne-Grethe TengResearch Support, Non-U.S. Gov'tEngland2014/07/06 06:00Aging Ment Health. 2015;19(4):347-52. doi: 10.1080/13607863.2014.933310. Epub 2014 Jul 3. Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Enmarker2015 Serial 1806  
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