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Author (up) Harvey, S.B.; Overland, S.; Hatch, S.L.; Wessely, S.; Mykletun, A.; Hotopf, M. url  doi
  Title Exercise and the Prevention of Depression: Results of the HUNT Cohort Study Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication The American Journal of Psychiatry Abbreviated Journal Am J Psychiatry  
  Volume 175 Issue 1 Pages 28-36  
  Keywords *Anxiety; *Depression; *Exercise; *Mental disorders; *Prevention  
  Abstract OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the present study was to address 1) whether exercise provides protection against new-onset depression and anxiety and 2) if so, the intensity and amount of exercise required to gain protection and, lastly, 3) the mechanisms that underlie any association. METHOD: A “healthy” cohort of 33,908 adults, selected on the basis of having no symptoms of common mental disorder or limiting physical health conditions, was prospectively followed for 11 years. Validated measures of exercise, depression, anxiety, and a range of potential confounding and mediating factors were collected. RESULTS: Undertaking regular leisure-time exercise was associated with reduced incidence of future depression but not anxiety. The majority of this protective effect occurred at low levels of exercise and was observed regardless of intensity. After adjustment for confounders, the population attributable fraction suggests that, assuming the relationship is causal, 12% of future cases of depression could have been prevented if all participants had engaged in at least 1 hour of physical activity each week. The social and physical health benefits of exercise explained a small proportion of the protective effect. Previously proposed biological mechanisms, such as alterations in parasympathetic vagal tone, did not appear to have a role in explaining the protection against depression. CONCLUSIONS: Regular leisure-time exercise of any intensity provides protection against future depression but not anxiety. Relatively modest changes in population levels of exercise may have important public mental health benefits and prevent a substantial number of new cases of depression.  
  Address From King's College London, Department of Psychological Medicine, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, London; the School of Psychiatry, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia; Black Dog Institute, Sydney, Australia; the Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway; the University of Bergen, Norway; the South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust, London; the Centre for Work and Mental Health, Nordland Hospital Trust, Bodo, Norway; and the Arctic University of Norway, Tromso, Norway  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0002-953X ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:28969440 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 1922  
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