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Author (up) Lie, T.M.; Bomme, M.; Hveem, K.; Hansen, J.M.; Ness-Jensen, E. url  doi
  Title Snus and risk of gastroesophageal reflux. A population-based case-control study: the HUNT study Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology Abbreviated Journal Scand J Gastroenterol  
  Volume 52 Issue 2 Pages 193-198  
  Keywords Adult; Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Case-Control Studies; Female; Gastroesophageal Reflux/*epidemiology; Heartburn/etiology; Humans; Logistic Models; Male; Middle Aged; Multivariate Analysis; Norway/epidemiology; Risk Factors; Tobacco Use/*epidemiology; Tobacco, Smokeless/*adverse effects; Young Adult; Health surveys; oral tobacco; smokeless tobacco; snuff  
  Abstract OBJECTIVE: Tobacco smoking is a risk factor for gastroesophageal reflux, but whether other tobacco products increase the risk is unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate if snus increases the risk of gastroesophageal reflux symptoms (GERS). MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was based on the third Nord-Trondelag health study (HUNT3), a population-based study of all adult residents in Nord-Trondelag County, Norway, performed in 2006-2009. The association between self-reported severe heartburn/regurgitation and snus use was assessed by logistic regression. RESULTS: Compared to never snus users, daily snus users had a reduced risk of GERS (OR 0.77, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.64-0.93), while previous snus users and those using <2 boxes of snus/month had an increased risk (OR 1.20, 95% CI 1.00-1.46 and OR 1.41, 95% CI 1.02-1.96, respectively). There was no association between age when starting using snus and GERS. Snus users who started using snus to quit or cut down on cigarette smoking, who started using both snus and cigarettes or cigarettes alone had an increased risk of GERS. Snus users <30 years of age had an increased risk of GERS (OR 1.49, 95% CI 1.02-2.16), while those aged between 50-60 and 60-70 years had a reduced risk (OR 0.67, 95% CI 0.49-0.93 and OR 0.51, 95% CI 0.28-0.94, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Daily snus users had a reduced risk of GERS. However, previous snus users and subgroups of snus users had an increased risk of GERS indicating reverse causality, such that snus use could increase the risk of GERS.  
  Address d Department of Medicine , Levanger Hospital, Nord-Trondelag Hospital Trust , Levanger , Norway  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0036-5521 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:27797289 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 1942  
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