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Author (up) Ness-Jensen, E.; Lagergren, J. url  doi
  Title Tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption and gastro-oesophageal reflux disease Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Best Practice & Research. Clinical Gastroenterology Abbreviated Journal Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol  
  Volume 31 Issue 5 Pages 501-508  
  Keywords Causality; Disease management; Ethanol; Gastroesophageal reflux; Smoking; Tobacco  
  Abstract Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) develops when reflux of gastric content causes troublesome symptoms or complications. The main symptoms are heartburn and acid regurgitation and complications include oesophagitis, strictures, Barrett's oesophagus and oesophageal adenocarcinoma. In addition to hereditary influence, GORD is associated with lifestyle factors, mainly obesity. Tobacco smoking is regarded as an aetiological factor of GORD, while alcohol consumption is considered a triggering factor of reflux episodes and not a causal factor. Yet, both tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption can reduce the lower oesophageal sphincter pressure, facilitating reflux. In addition, tobacco smoking reduces the production of saliva rich in bicarbonate, which is important for buffering and clearance of acid in the oesophagus. Alcohol also has a direct noxious effect on the oesophageal mucosa, which predisposes to acidic injury. Tobacco smoking cessation reduces the risk of GORD symptoms and avoidance of alcohol is encouraged in individuals where alcohol consumption triggers reflux.  
  Address Upper Gastrointestinal Surgery, Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, 171 76 Stockholm, Sweden; School of Cancer Sciences, King's College London, SE1 9RT, United Kingdom. Electronic address: jesper.lagergren@ki.se  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1521-6918 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:29195669 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 1965  
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