||BACKGROUND: Inflammation plays a central role in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung cancer carcinogenesis. Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) reduce inflammation. This study has investigated whether ICS use is associated with a lower risk of lung cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data from the Nord-Trondelag Health Study (HUNT2 Survey, 1995-1997) were merged with The Cancer Registry of Norway and Norwegian Cause of Death Registry. From a total of 65,215 participants, those with chronic airway inflammation, defined by FEV1% < 70 and/or chronic cough and expectorate phlegm, were included (N = 4136). Of these, 3041 individuals reported regarding ICS use and were observed for a period of 12 years. Cox regression models were used to calculate the risk of lung cancer with a 95% confidence interval (CI) with sex, age, smoking pack years and FEV1% < 70 as known confounders. RESULTS: Among ICS users (N = 1095). we found a higher, but not significant, incidence of lung cancer N = 39 (3.6%), compared to non-users (N = 1946) with N = 65 (3.3%) cases. Age and smoking were associated with a higher risk, while sex and lung function were not. After adjusting for confounders, ICS use did not change the risk of lung cancer, hazard ratio (HR) 0.968, (95% CI, 0.608-1.540), and p value 0.890. CONCLUSION: ICS use is not associated with a reduced risk of lung cancer in our study population.