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Author (up) Taylor, M.; Rode, L.; Bjorngaard, J.; Taylor, A.E.; Bojesen, S.E.; Asvold, B.O.; Gabrielsen, M.E.; Lewis, G.; Nordestgaard, B.G.; Romundstad, P.R.; Hickman, M.; Munafo, M.R. url  doi
  Title Is smoking heaviness causally associated with alcohol use? A Mendelian randomization study in four European cohorts Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication International Journal of Epidemiology Abbreviated Journal Int J Epidemiol  
  Volume 47 Issue 4 Pages 1098-1105  
  Abstract Background: Observational studies have shown that tobacco and alcohol use co-occur, but it is not clear whether this relationship is causal. Methods: Using data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) and UK Biobank, we used observational methods to test the hypothesis that smoking heaviness increases alcohol consumption. Mendelian randomization (MR) analyses were then used to test the causal relationship between smoking heaviness and alcohol consumption using 55 967 smokers from four European studies [ALSPAC, The Nord-Trondelag Health Study (HUNT), the Copenhagen General Population Study (CGPS) and UK Biobank]. MR analyses used rs1051730/rs16969968 as a genetic proxy for smoking heaviness. Results: Observational results provided evidence of an association between cigarettes per day and weekly alcohol consumption (increase in units of alcohol per additional cigarette smoked per day = 0.10, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.05 to 0.15, P </= 0.001 in ALSPAC; and 0.48, 95% CI 0.45 to 0.52, P </= 0.001 in UK Biobank). However, there was little evidence for an association between rs1051730/rs16969968 and units of alcohol consumed per week across ALSPAC, HUNT, CGPS and UK Biobank (standard deviation increase in units of alcohol per additional copy of the risk allele = -0.004, 95% CI -0.023 to 0.016, P=0.708, I2 = 51.9%). We had 99% and 88% power to detect a change of 0.03 and 0.02 standard deviation units of alcohol per additional copy of the risk allele, respectively. Conclusions: Previously reported associations between smoking and alcohol are unlikely to be causal, and may be the result of confounding and/or reverse causation. This has implications for public health research and intervention research.  
  Address UK Centre for Tobacco and Alcohol Studies, School of Experimental Psychology, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0300-5771 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:29509885; PMCID:PMC6124618 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 2181  
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