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Author Alsnes, I.V.; Vatten, L.J.; Fraser, A.; Bjorngaard, J.H.; Rich-Edwards, J.; Romundstad, P.R.; Asvold, B.O. url  doi
  Title Hypertension in Pregnancy and Offspring Cardiovascular Risk in Young Adulthood: Prospective and Sibling Studies in the HUNT Study (Nord-Trondelag Health Study) in Norway Type Multicenter Study
  Year 2017 Publication Hypertension (Dallas, Tex. : 1979) Abbreviated Journal Hypertension  
  Volume 69 Issue 4 Pages 591-598  
  Keywords Adult; Blood Pressure/*physiology; Cardiovascular Diseases/*epidemiology/etiology/physiopathology; Female; Follow-Up Studies; Humans; Hypertension, Pregnancy-Induced/*epidemiology/physiopathology; Incidence; Infant, Newborn; Norway/epidemiology; Pregnancy; *Pregnancy Complications, Cardiovascular; Prospective Studies; *Registries; Risk Factors; Siblings; adolescent; blood pressure; cardiovascular disease; mother; preeclampsia  
  Abstract Women with hypertensive disorders in pregnancy are at increased lifetime risk for cardiovascular disease. We examined the offspring's cardiovascular risk profile in young adulthood and their siblings' cardiovascular risk profile. From the HUNT study (Nord-Trondelag Health Study) in Norway, 15 778 participants (mean age: 29 years), including 210 sibling groups, were linked to information from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. Blood pressure, anthropometry, serum lipids, and C-reactive protein were assessed. Seven hundred and six participants were born after exposure to maternal hypertension in pregnancy: 336 mothers had gestational hypertension, 343 had term preeclampsia, and 27 had preterm preeclampsia. Offspring whose mothers had hypertension in pregnancy had 2.7 (95% confidence interval, 1.8-3.5) mm Hg higher systolic blood pressure, 1.5 (0.9-2.1) mm Hg higher diastolic blood pressure, 0.66 (0.31-1.01) kg/m2 higher body mass index, and 1.49 (0.65-2.33) cm wider waist circumference, compared with offspring of normotensive pregnancies. Similar differences were observed for gestational hypertension and term preeclampsia. Term preeclampsia was also associated with higher concentrations of non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (0.14 mmol/L, 0.03-0.25) and triglycerides (0.13 mmol/L, 0.06-0.21). Siblings born after a normotensive pregnancy had nearly identical risk factor levels as siblings born after maternal hypertension. Offspring born after maternal hypertension in pregnancy have a more adverse cardiovascular risk profile in young adulthood than offspring of normotensive pregnancies. Their siblings, born after a normotensive pregnancy, have a similar risk profile, suggesting that shared genes or lifestyle may account for the association, rather than an intrauterine effect. All children of mothers who have experienced hypertension in pregnancy may be at increased lifetime risk of cardiovascular disease.  
  Address From the Department of Public Health and General Practice, Faculty of Medicine, NTNU, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim (I.V.A., L.J.V., J.H.B., J.R.-E., P.R.R., B.O.A.); MRC Integrative Epidemiology Unit at the University of Bristol and School of Social and Community Medicine, University of Bristol, United Kingdom (A.F.); Channing Division of Network Medicine, Department of Medicine, Connors Center for Women's Health and Gender Biology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA (J.R.-E.); Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (J.R.-E.); Department of Epidemiology, the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA (L.J.V., J.R.-E.); and Department of Endocrinology, St. Olavs Hospital, Trondheim University Hospital, Norway (B.O.A.)  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0194-911X ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference (up)  
  Notes PMID:28223467 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 1875  
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Author Asvold, B.O.; Midthjell, K.; Krokstad, S.; Rangul, V.; Bauman, A. url  doi
  Title Prolonged sitting may increase diabetes risk in physically inactive individuals: an 11 year follow-up of the HUNT Study, Norway Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Diabetologia Abbreviated Journal Diabetologia  
  Volume 60 Issue 5 Pages 830-835  
  Keywords Adult; Body Mass Index; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/*epidemiology/metabolism; Exercise/physiology; Female; Humans; Incidence; Leisure Activities; Male; Middle Aged; *Sedentary Lifestyle; Epidemiology; Sedentary lifestyle; Type 2 diabetes mellitus  
  Abstract AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: We examined the association between sitting time and diabetes incidence, overall and by strata of leisure-time physical activity and BMI. METHODS: We followed 28,051 adult participants of the Nord-Trondelag Health Study (the HUNT Study), a population-based study, for diabetes incidence from 1995-1997 to 2006-2008 and estimated HRs of any diabetes by categories of self-reported total daily sitting time at baseline. RESULTS: Of 28,051 participants, 1253 (4.5%) developed diabetes during 11 years of follow-up. Overall, sitting >/=8 h/day was associated with a 17% (95% CI 2, 34) higher risk of developing diabetes compared with sitting </=4 h/day, adjusted for age, sex and education. However, the association was attenuated to a non-significant 9% (95% CI -5, 26) increase in risk after adjustment for leisure-time physical activity and BMI. The association between sitting time and diabetes risk differed by leisure-time physical activity (p Interaction = 0.01). Among participants with low leisure-time physical activity (</=2 h light activity per week and no vigorous activity), sitting 5-7 h/day and >/=8 h/day were associated with a 26% (95% CI 2, 57) and 30% (95% CI 5, 61) higher risk of diabetes, respectively, compared with sitting </=4 h/day. There was no corresponding association among participants with high leisure-time physical activity (>/=3 h light activity or >0 h vigorous activity per week). There was no statistical evidence that the association between sitting time and diabetes risk differed by obesity (p Interaction = 0.65). CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Our findings suggest that total sitting time has little association with diabetes risk in the population as a whole, but prolonged sitting may contribute to an increased diabetes risk among physically inactive people.  
  Address School of Public Health, Sydney University, Sydney, NSW, Australia  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0012-186X ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference (up)  
  Notes PMID:28054097 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 1879  
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Author Bauman, A.E.; Grunseit, A.C.; Rangul, V.; Heitmann, B.L. url  doi
  Title Physical activity, obesity and mortality: does pattern of physical activity have stronger epidemiological associations? Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication BMC Public Health Abbreviated Journal BMC Public Health  
  Volume 17 Issue 1 Pages 788  
  Keywords Cardiovascular disease; Hip circumference; Waist circumference  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Most studies of physical activity (PA) epidemiology use behaviour measured at a single time-point. We examined whether 'PA patterns' (consistently low, consistently high or inconsistent PA levels over time) showed different epidemiological relationships for anthropometric and mortality outcomes, compared to single time-point measure of PA. METHODS: Data were the Danish MONICA (MONItoring Trends and Determinants in CArdiovascular Disease) study over three waves 1982-3 (time 1), 1987-8 (time 2) and 1993-4 (time 3). Associations between leisure time single time-point PA levels at time 1 and time 3, and sport and active travel at times 1 and 2 with BMI, waist, hip circumference and mortality (death from coronary heart disease (CHD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD)) were compared to 'PA patterns' spanning multiple time points. PA pattern classified participants' PA as either 1) inactive or low PA at both time points; 2) moderate level PA at time 1 and high activity at time 3; or 3) a 'mixed PA pattern' indicating a varying levels of activity over time. Similarly, sport and active travel were also classified as indicating stable low, stable high and mixed patterns. RESULTS: The moderately and highly active groups for PA at times 1 and 3 had up to 1.7 cm lower increase in waist circumference compared with the inactive/low active group. Across 'PA patterns', 'active maintainers' had a 2.0 cm lower waist circumference than 'inactive/low maintainers'. Waist circumference was inversely related to sport but not active travel. CHD risk did not vary by activity levels at time 1, but was reduced significantly by 43% for high PA at time 3 (vs 'inactive' group) and among 'active maintainers' (vs 'inactive/low maintainers') by 62%. 'Sport pattern' showed stronger reductions in mortality for cardiovascular disease and CHD deaths among sport maintainers, than the single time point measures. CONCLUSIONS: PA patterns demonstrated a stronger association with a number of anthropometric and mortality outcomes than the single time-point measures. Operationalising PA as a sustained behavioural pattern may address some of the known under-estimation of risk for poor health in PA self-report measurements and better reflect exposure for epidemiological analysis of risk of health outcomes.  
  Address Copenhagen Center for Preventive Medicine, Glostrup Hospital, Copenhagen Capital Region, Denmark  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1471-2458 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference (up)  
  Notes PMID:28982371; PMCID:PMC5629749 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 1880  
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Author Bjorngaard, J.H.; Nordestgaard, A.T.; Taylor, A.E.; Treur, J.L.; Gabrielsen, M.E.; Munafo, M.R.; Nordestgaard, B.G.; Asvold, B.O.; Romundstad, P.; Davey Smith, G. url  doi
  Title Heavier smoking increases coffee consumption: findings from a Mendelian randomization analysis Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication International Journal of Epidemiology Abbreviated Journal Int J Epidemiol  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords Coffee, tea, smoking, Mendelian randomization  
  Abstract Background: There is evidence for a positive relationship between cigarette and coffee consumption in smokers. Cigarette smoke increases metabolism of caffeine, so this may represent a causal effect of smoking on caffeine intake. Methods: We performed Mendelian randomization analyses in the UK Biobank ( N = 114 029), the Norwegian HUNT study ( N = 56 664) and the Copenhagen General Population Study (CGPS) ( N = 78 650). We used the rs16969968 genetic variant as a proxy for smoking heaviness in all studies and rs4410790 and rs2472297 as proxies for coffee consumption in UK Biobank and CGPS. Analyses were conducted using linear regression and meta-analysed across studies. Results: Each additional cigarette per day consumed by current smokers was associated with higher coffee consumption (0.10 cups per day, 95% CI: 0.03, 0.17). There was weak evidence for an increase in tea consumption per additional cigarette smoked per day (0.04 cups per day, 95% CI: -0.002, 0.07). There was strong evidence that each additional copy of the minor allele of rs16969968 (which increases daily cigarette consumption) in current smokers was associated with higher coffee consumption (0.16 cups per day, 95% CI: 0.11, 0.20), but only weak evidence for an association with tea consumption (0.04 cups per day, 95% CI: -0.01, 0.09). There was no clear evidence that rs16969968 was associated with coffee or tea consumption in never or former smokers or that the coffee-related variants were associated with cigarette consumption. Conclusions: Higher cigarette consumption causally increases coffee intake. This is consistent with faster metabolism of caffeine by smokers, but could also reflect a behavioural effect of smoking on coffee drinking.  
  Address School of Social and Community Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0300-5771 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference (up)  
  Notes PMID:29025033 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 1881  
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Author Andre, B.; Canhao, H.; Espnes, G.A.; Ferreira Rodrigues, A.M.; Gregorio, M.J.; Nguyen, C.; Sousa, R.; Gronning, K. url  doi
  Title Is there an association between food patterns and life satisfaction among Norway's inhabitants ages 65 years and older? Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Appetite Abbreviated Journal Appetite  
  Volume 110 Issue Pages 108-115  
  Keywords Anxiety; Depression; Elderly adults; Food patterns; Life satisfaction  
  Abstract The lack of information regarding older adults' health and lifestyles makes it difficult to design suitable interventions for people at risk of developing unhealth lifestyles. Therefore, there is a need to increase knowledge about older adults' food patterns and quality of life. Our aim was to determine associations among food patterns, anxiety, depression, and life satisfaction in Norwegian inhabitants ages 65+. The Nord-Trondelag Health Study (The HUNT Study) is a large, population-based cohort study that includes data for 125 000 Norwegian participants. The cohort used for this study is wave three of the study, consisting of 11 619 participants age 65 and over. Cluster analysis was used to categorize the participants based on similarities in food consumption; two clusters were identified based on similarities regarding food consumption among participants. Significant differences between the clusters were found, as participants in the healthy food-patterns cluster had higher life satisfaction and lower anxiety and depression than those in the unhealthy food-patterns cluster. The associations among food patterns, anxiety, depression, and life satisfaction among older adults show the need for increased focus on interactions among food patterns, food consumption, and life satisfaction among the elderly in order to explore how society can influence these patterns.  
  Address Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Department of Public Health and Nursing, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Norway; NTNU Center for Health Promotion Research, Norway  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0195-6663 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference (up)  
  Notes PMID:27988367 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 1878  
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Author Bjorngaard, J.H.; Vie, G.A.; Janszky, I.; Vatten, L.J. url  doi
  Title Reply to Letter to the editor “Comments on cardiovascular mortality – Comparing risk factor associations within couples and in the total population – The HUNT Study” Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication International Journal of Cardiology Abbreviated Journal Int J Cardiol  
  Volume 242 Issue Pages 8  
  Keywords  
  Abstract  
  Address Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, 7491 Trondheim, Norway; Regional Center for Health Care Improvement, St Olav Hospital, Trondheim, Norway  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0167-5273 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference (up)  
  Notes PMID:28619354 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 1882  
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Author Bjorngaard, J.H.; Vie, G.A.; Krokstad, S.; Janszky, I.; Romundstad, P.R.; Vatten, L.J. url  doi
  Title Cardiovascular mortality – Comparing risk factor associations within couples and in the total population – The HUNT Study Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication International Journal of Cardiology Abbreviated Journal Int J Cardiol  
  Volume 232 Issue Pages 127-133  
  Keywords Cardiovascular mortality; Confounding; Couples; Population study; Risk factors  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: To compare associations of conventional risk factors with cardiovascular death within couples and in the population as a whole. METHODS: We analysed baseline data (1995-97) from the HUNT2 Study in Norway linked to the national Causes of Death Registry. We compared risk within couples using stratified Cox regression. RESULTS: During 914776 person-years, 3964 cardiovascular deaths occurred, and 1658 of the deaths occurred among 1494 couples. There were consistently stronger associations of serum lipids and blood pressure with cardiovascular mortality within couples compared to the population as a whole. For instance, for systolic blood pressure (per 20mmHg), the hazard ratio (HR) within couples was 1.28 (95% confidence interval: 1.17, 1.40) compared to 1.16 (1.12, 1.20) in the total population, and for diastolic pressure (per 10mmHg), the corresponding HRs were 1.16 (1.07, 1.26) and 1.11 (1.08, 1.13). Anthropometric factors (BMI, waist circumference, waist-hip ratio) as well as diabetes, smoking, physical activity, and education, showed nearly identical positive associations within couples and in the total population. CONCLUSIONS: Prospective population studies may tend to slightly underestimate associations of these factors with cardiovascular mortality.  
  Address Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, 7491 Trondheim, Norway; Regional Center for Health Care Improvement, St Olav Hospital, Trondheim, Norway  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0167-5273 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference (up)  
  Notes PMID:28082089 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 1883  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Bjornland, T.; Langaas, M.; Grill, V.; Mostad, I.L. url  doi
  Title Assessing gene-environment interaction effects of FTO, MC4R and lifestyle factors on obesity using an extreme phenotype sampling design: Results from the HUNT study Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication PloS one Abbreviated Journal PLoS One  
  Volume 12 Issue 4 Pages e0175071  
  Keywords Alpha-Ketoglutarate-Dependent Dioxygenase FTO/*genetics; Body Mass Index; *Gene-Environment Interaction; Humans; *Life Style; Obesity/*genetics; *Phenotype; Receptor, Melanocortin, Type 4/*genetics; Waist-Hip Ratio  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Our aim was to assess the influence of age, gender and lifestyle factors on the effect of the obesity-promoting alleles of FTO and MCR4. METHODS: The HUNT study comprises health information on the population of Nord-Trondelag county, Norway. Extreme phenotype participants (gender-wise lower and upper quartiles of waist-hip-ratio and BMI >/= 35 kg/m2) in the third survey, HUNT3 (2006-08), were genotyped for the single-nucleotide polymorphisms rs9939609 (FTO) and rs17782313 (MC4R); 25686 participants were successfully genotyped. Extreme sampling was chosen to increase power to detect genetic and gene-environment effects on waist-hip-ratio and BMI. Statistical inference was based on linear regression models and a missing-covariate likelihood approach for the extreme phenotype sampling design. Environmental factors were physical activity, diet (artificially sweetened beverages) and smoking. Longitudinal analysis was performed using material from HUNT2 (1995-97). RESULTS: Cross-sectional and longitudinal genetic effects indicated stronger genetic associations with obesity in young than in old, as well as differences between women and men. We observed larger genetic effects among physically inactive compared to active individuals. This interaction was age-dependent and seen mainly in 20-40 year olds. We observed a greater FTO effect among men with a regular intake of artificially sweetened beverages, compared to non-drinkers. Interaction analysis of smoking was mainly inconclusive. CONCLUSIONS: In a large all-adult and area-based population survey the effects of obesity-promoting minor-alleles of FTO and MCR4, and interactions with life style factors are age- and gender-related. These findings appear relevant when designing individualized treatment for and prophylaxis against obesity.  
  Address Department of Clinical Nutrition and Speech-Language Therapy, Clinic of Clinical Services, St. Olavs Hospital, Trondheim University Hospital, Trondheim, Norway  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1932-6203 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference (up)  
  Notes PMID:28384342; PMCID:PMC5383228 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 1884  
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Author Borte, S.; Winsvold, B.S.; Stensland, S.O.; Smastuen, M.C.; Zwart, J.-A. url  doi
  Title The effect of foetal growth restriction on the development of migraine and tension-type headache in adulthood. The HUNT Study Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication PloS one Abbreviated Journal PLoS One  
  Volume 12 Issue 4 Pages e0175908  
  Keywords Adult; Birth Weight; Female; Fetal Growth Retardation/epidemiology/*etiology; Gestational Age; Health Surveys; Humans; Infant, Newborn; Logistic Models; Male; Migraine Disorders/complications/*diagnosis/epidemiology; Norway/epidemiology; Odds Ratio; Pregnancy; Registries; Risk Factors; Tension-Type Headache/complications/*diagnosis/epidemiology; Young Adult  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: There is little knowledge about how factors early in life affect the development of migraine and tension-type headache. We aimed to examine whether growth restriction in utero is associated with development of migraine and frequent tension-type headache in adults. METHODS: The population-based Nord-Trondelag Health Study (HUNT 3) contained a validated headache questionnaire, which differentiated between migraine and tension-type headache. These data were linked to information on weight and gestational age at birth from the Norwegian Medical Birth Registry. In total 4557 females and 2789 males, aged 19-41 years, were included in this registry-based study. Participants were categorized as appropriate for gestational age (AGA, 10th-90th percentile), small for gestational age (SGA, 3rd-10th percentile) or very small for gestational age (VSGA, < 3rd percentile). Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for migraine and tension-type headache, with exposure being growth restriction at birth. RESULTS: The effect of growth restriction on migraine was modified by sex, with a significant association in males (p<0.001), but not in females (p = 0.20). In particular, males born VSGA were at increased risk of developing migraine (OR 2.73, 95% CI 1.63-4.58, p<0.001), with an intermediate risk among those born SGA (OR 1.50, 95% CI 0.96-2.35, p = 0.08) compared to those born AGA. There was no significant association between growth restriction and frequent TTH (p = 0.051). CONCLUSION: Growth restriction was associated with increased risk of migraine in adulthood among males, but not among females. This suggests that migraine might, in part, be influenced by early life events, and that males seem to be particularly vulnerable.  
  Address Department of Neurology, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1932-6203 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference (up)  
  Notes PMID:28410431; PMCID:PMC5391957 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 1885  
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Author Bosnes, I.; Almkvist, O.; Bosnes, O.; Stordal, E.; Romild, U.; Nordahl, H.M. url  doi
  Title Prevalence and correlates of successful aging in a population-based sample of older adults: the HUNT study Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication International Psychogeriatrics Abbreviated Journal Int Psychogeriatr  
  Volume 29 Issue 3 Pages 431-440  
  Keywords Hunt; components; correlates; prevalence; successful aging  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: The factors influencing successful aging (SA) are of great interest in an aging society. The aims of this study were to investigate the prevalence of SA, the relative importance across age of the three components used to define it (absence of disease and disability, high cognitive and physical function, and active engagement with life), and its correlates. METHODS: Data were extracted from the population-based cross-sectional Nord-Trondelag Health Study (HUNT3 2006-2008). Individuals aged 70-89 years with complete datasets for the three components were included (N = 5773 of 8,040, 71.8%). Of the respondents, 54.6% were women. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were used to analyze possible correlates of SA. RESULTS: Overall, 35.6% of the sample met one of the three criteria, 34.1% met combinations, and 14.5% met all of the three criteria. The most demanding criterion was high function, closely followed by absence of disease, while approximately two-thirds were actively engaged in life. The relative change with age was largest for the high cognitive and physical function component and smallest for active engagement with life. The significant correlates of SA were younger age, female gender, higher education, weekly exercise, more satisfaction with life, non-smoking, and alcohol consumption, whereas marital status was not related to SA. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of SA in this study (14.5%) is comparable to previous studies. It may be possible to increase the prevalence by intervention directed toward more exercise, non-smoking, and better satisfaction with life.  
  Address Department of Psychology,Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU),Trondheim,Norway  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1041-6102 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference (up)  
  Notes PMID:27852332 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 1886  
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Author Brumpton, B.; Mai, X.-M.; Langhammer, A.; Laugsand, L.E.; Janszky, I.; Strand, L.B. url  doi
  Title Prospective study of insomnia and incident asthma in adults: the HUNT study Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication The European Respiratory Journal Abbreviated Journal Eur Respir J  
  Volume 49 Issue 2 Pages  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Insomnia is highly prevalent among asthmatics; however, few studies have investigated insomnia symptoms and asthma development. We aimed to investigate the association between insomnia and the risk of incident asthma in a population-based cohort.Among 17 927 participants free from asthma at baseline we calculated odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the risk of incident asthma among those with insomnia compared to those without. Participants reported sleep initiation problems, sleep maintenance problems and nonrestorative sleep. Chronic insomnia was defined as those reporting one or more insomnia symptom at baseline and 10 years earlier. Incident asthma was defined by questions on asthma at baseline and follow-up (average 11 years).The prevalence of sleep initiation problems, sleep maintenance problems and nonrestorative sleep were 1%, 1% and 5%, respectively. The multi-adjusted odds ratios were 1.18 (95% CI 0.97-1.44), 1.30 (95% CI 1.03-1.64) and 1.70 (95% CI 1.37-2.11) for people with one, two and three insomnia symptoms, respectively, compared with people without symptoms (p<0.01 for trend). The risk of developing asthma in those with chronic insomnia was three times higher (adjusted OR 3.16, 95% CI 1.37-6.40) than those without.Insomnia symptoms were associated with increased risk of incident asthma in this study.  
  Address Dept of Public Health and General Practice, Faculty of Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, NTNU, Trondheim, Norway  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0903-1936 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference (up)  
  Notes PMID:28153868 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 1887  
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Author Brumpton, B.M.; Langhammer, A.; Henriksen, A.H.; Camargo, C.A.J.; Chen, Y.; Romundstad, P.R.; Mai, X.-M. url  doi
  Title Physical activity and lung function decline in adults with asthma: The HUNT Study Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Respirology (Carlton, Vic.) Abbreviated Journal Respirology  
  Volume 22 Issue 2 Pages 278-283  
  Keywords Adult; Asthma/*physiopathology; Cohort Studies; Disease Progression; Exercise/*physiology; Female; Follow-Up Studies; Forced Expiratory Volume; Humans; Leisure Activities; Male; Middle Aged; Norway; Physical Exertion; Sedentary Lifestyle; Surveys and Questionnaires; Vital Capacity; *forced expiratory volume in 1 s; *forced vital capacity; *leisure time; *peak expiratory flow; *prospective  
  Abstract BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: People with asthma may seek advice about physical activity. However, the benefits of leisure time physical activity on lung function are unclear. We investigated the association between leisure time physical activity and lung function decline in adults with asthma. METHODS: In a population-based cohort study in Norway, we used multiple linear regressions to estimate the annual mean decline in lung function (and 95% CI) in 1329 people with asthma over a mean follow-up of 11.6 years. The durations of light and hard physical activity per week in the last year were collected by questionnaire. Inactive participants did not report any light or hard activity, while active participants reported light or hard activity. RESULTS: The mean decline in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1 ) was 37 mL/year among inactive participants and 32 mL/year in active participants (difference: -5 mL/year (95% CI: -13 to 3)). The mean decline in forced vital capacity (FVC) was 33 mL/year among inactive participants and 31 mL/year in active participants (difference: -2 mL/year (95% CI: -11 to 7)). The mean decline in FEV1 /FVC ratio was 0.36%/year among inactive participants and 0.22%/year in active participants (difference: -0.14%/year (95% CI: -0.27 to -0.01)). The mean decline in peak expiratory flow (PEF) was 14 mL/year among the inactive participants and 10 mL/year in active participants (difference: -4 mL/year (95% CI: -9 to 1)). CONCLUSION: We observed slightly less decline in lung function in physically active than inactive participants with asthma, particularly for FEV1 , FEV1 /FVC ratio and PEF.  
  Address Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and General Practice, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1323-7799 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference (up)  
  Notes PMID:27696634 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 1892  
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Author Brunes, A.; Flanders, W.D.; Augestad, L.B. url  doi
  Title Self-reported visual impairment, physical activity and all-cause mortality: The HUNT Study Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Scandinavian Journal of Public Health Abbreviated Journal Scand J Public Health  
  Volume 45 Issue 1 Pages 33-41  
  Keywords Aged; Aged, 80 and over; *Cause of Death; *Exercise; Female; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; Norway/epidemiology; Proportional Hazards Models; Prospective Studies; Risk Assessment; *Self Report; Vision Disorders/*epidemiology; *All-cause mortality; *HUNT study; *physical activity; *prospective cohort study; *self-reported; *visual impairment  
  Abstract AIMS: To examine the associations of self-reported visual impairment and physical activity (PA) with all-cause mortality. METHODS: This prospective cohort study included 65,236 Norwegians aged 20 years who had participated in the Nord-Trondelag Health Study (HUNT2, 1995-1997). Of these participants, 11,074 (17.0%) had self-reported visual impairment (SRVI). The participants' data were linked to Norway's Cause of Death Registry and followed throughout 2012. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were assessed using Cox regression analyses with age as the time-scale. The Cox models were fitted for restricted age groups (<60, 60-84, 85 years). RESULTS: After a mean follow-up of 14.5 years, 13,549 deaths were identified. Compared with adults with self-reported no visual impairment, the multivariable hazard ratios among adults with SRVI were 2.47 (95% CI 1.94-3.13) in those aged <60 years, 1.22 (95% CI 1.13-1.33) in those aged 60-84 years and 1.05 (95% CI 0.96-1.15) in those aged 85 years. The strength of the associations remained similar or stronger after additionally controlling for PA. When examining the joint associations, the all-cause mortality risk of SRVI was higher for those who reported no PA than for those who reported weekly hours of PA. We found a large, positive departure from additivity in adults aged <60 years, whereas the departure from additivity was small for the other age groups. CONCLUSIONS: Adults with SRVI reporting no PA were associated with an increased all-cause mortality risk. The associations attenuated with age.  
  Address 4 Department of Visual Impairment, Statped Mid-Norway, Norway  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1403-4948 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference (up)  
  Notes PMID:27913690 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 1893  
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Author Burgel, P.-R.; Paillasseur, J.-L.; Janssens, W.; Piquet, J.; Ter Riet, G.; Garcia-Aymerich, J.; Cosio, B.; Bakke, P.; Puhan, M.A.; Langhammer, A.; Alfageme, I.; Almagro, P.; Ancochea, J.; Celli, B.R.; Casanova, C.; de-Torres, J.P.; Decramer, M.; Echazarreta, A.; Esteban, C.; Gomez Punter, R.M.; Han, M.L.K.; Johannessen, A.; Kaiser, B.; Lamprecht, B.; Lange, P.; Leivseth, L.; Marin, J.M.; Martin, F.; Martinez-Camblor, P.; Miravitlles, M.; Oga, T.; Sofia Ramirez, A.; Sin, D.D.; Sobradillo, P.; Soler-Cataluna, J.J.; Turner, A.M.; Verdu Rivera, F.J.; Soriano, J.B.; Roche, N. url  doi
  Title A simple algorithm for the identification of clinical COPD phenotypes Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication The European Respiratory Journal Abbreviated Journal Eur Respir J  
  Volume 50 Issue 5 Pages  
  Keywords  
  Abstract This study aimed to identify simple rules for allocating chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients to clinical phenotypes identified by cluster analyses.Data from 2409 COPD patients of French/Belgian COPD cohorts were analysed using cluster analysis resulting in the identification of subgroups, for which clinical relevance was determined by comparing 3-year all-cause mortality. Classification and regression trees (CARTs) were used to develop an algorithm for allocating patients to these subgroups. This algorithm was tested in 3651 patients from the COPD Cohorts Collaborative International Assessment (3CIA) initiative.Cluster analysis identified five subgroups of COPD patients with different clinical characteristics (especially regarding severity of respiratory disease and the presence of cardiovascular comorbidities and diabetes). The CART-based algorithm indicated that the variables relevant for patient grouping differed markedly between patients with isolated respiratory disease (FEV1, dyspnoea grade) and those with multi-morbidity (dyspnoea grade, age, FEV1 and body mass index). Application of this algorithm to the 3CIA cohorts confirmed that it identified subgroups of patients with different clinical characteristics, mortality rates (median, from 4% to 27%) and age at death (median, from 68 to 76 years).A simple algorithm, integrating respiratory characteristics and comorbidities, allowed the identification of clinically relevant COPD phenotypes.  
  Address Dept of Respiratory Medicine, Cochin Hospital, AP-HP, Paris, France  
  Corporate Author Initiatives BPCO, EABPCO, Leuven and 3CIA study groups Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0903-1936 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference (up)  
  Notes PMID:29097431 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 1894  
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Author Cai, Y.; Hansell, A.L.; Blangiardo, M.; Burton, P.R.; de Hoogh, K.; Doiron, D.; Fortier, I.; Gulliver, J.; Hveem, K.; Mbatchou, S.; Morley, D.W.; Stolk, R.P.; Zijlema, W.L.; Elliott, P.; Hodgson, S. url  doi
  Title Long-term exposure to road traffic noise, ambient air pollution, and cardiovascular risk factors in the HUNT and lifelines cohorts Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication European Heart Journal Abbreviated Journal Eur Heart J  
  Volume 38 Issue 29 Pages 2290-2296  
  Keywords Air pollution; Blood glucose; Blood lipids; Systemic inflammation; Traffic noise  
  Abstract Aims: Blood biochemistry may provide information on associations between road traffic noise, air pollution, and cardiovascular disease risk. We evaluated this in two large European cohorts (HUNT3, Lifelines). Methods and results: Road traffic noise exposure was modelled for 2009 using a simplified version of the Common Noise Assessment Methods in Europe (CNOSSOS-EU). Annual ambient air pollution (PM10, NO2) at residence was estimated for 2007 using a Land Use Regression model. The statistical platform DataSHIELD was used to pool data from 144 082 participants aged >/=20 years to enable individual-level analysis. Generalized linear models were fitted to assess cross-sectional associations between pollutants and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), blood lipids and for (Lifelines only) fasting blood glucose, for samples taken during recruitment in 2006-2013. Pooling both cohorts, an inter-quartile range (IQR) higher day-time noise (5.1 dB(A)) was associated with 1.1% [95% confidence interval (95% CI: 0.02-2.2%)] higher hsCRP, 0.7% (95% CI: 0.3-1.1%) higher triglycerides, and 0.5% (95% CI: 0.3-0.7%) higher high-density lipoprotein (HDL); only the association with HDL was robust to adjustment for air pollution. An IQR higher PM10 (2.0 microg/m3) or NO2 (7.4 microg/m3) was associated with higher triglycerides (1.9%, 95% CI: 1.5-2.4% and 2.2%, 95% CI: 1.6-2.7%), independent of adjustment for noise. Additionally for NO2, a significant association with hsCRP (1.9%, 95% CI: 0.5-3.3%) was seen. In Lifelines, an IQR higher noise (4.2 dB(A)) and PM10 (2.4 microg/m3) was associated with 0.2% (95% CI: 0.1-0.3%) and 0.6% (95% CI: 0.4-0.7%) higher fasting glucose respectively, with both remaining robust to adjustment for air/noise pollution. Conclusion: Long-term exposures to road traffic noise and ambient air pollution were associated with blood biochemistry, providing a possible link between road traffic noise/air pollution and cardio-metabolic disease risk.  
  Address Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, MRC-PHE Centre for Environment and Health, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, St Mary's Campus, Norfolk Place, W2 1PG, London, UK  
  Corporate Author BioSHaRE Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0195-668X ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference (up)  
  Notes PMID:28575405 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 1895  
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Author Carslake, D.; Davey Smith, G.; Gunnell, D.; Davies, N.; Nilsen, T.I.L.; Romundstad, P. url  doi
  Title Confounding by ill health in the observed association between BMI and mortality: evidence from the HUNT Study using offspring BMI as an instrument Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication International Journal of Epidemiology Abbreviated Journal Int J Epidemiol  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords Body mass index; cohort study; confounding; instrumental variables; mortality; reverse causation  
  Abstract Background: The observational association between mortality and body mass index (BMI) is U-shaped, leading to highly publicized suggestions that moderate overweight is beneficial to health. However, it is unclear whether elevated mortality is caused by low BMI or if the association is confounded, for example by concurrent ill health. Methods: Using HUNT, a Norwegian prospective study, 32 452 mother-offspring and 27 747 father-offspring pairs were followed up to 2009. Conventional hazard ratios for parental mortality per standard deviation of BMI were estimated using Cox regression adjusted for behavioural and socioeconomic factors. To estimate hazard ratios with reduced susceptibility to confounding, particularly from concurrent ill health, the BMI of parents' offspring was used as an instrumental variable for parents' own BMI. The shape of mortality-BMI associations was assessed using cubic splines. Results: There were 18 365 parental deaths during follow-up. Conventional associations of mortality from all-causes, cardiovascular disease and cancer with parents' own BMI were substantially nonlinear, with elevated mortality at both extremes and minima at 21-25 kg m-2. Equivalent associations with offspring BMI were positive and there was no evidence of elevated parental mortality at low offspring BMI. The linear instrumental variable hazard ratio for all-cause mortality per standard deviation increase in BMI was 1.18 (95% confidence interval: 1.10, 1.26), compared with 1.05 (1.03, 1.06) in the conventional analysis. Conclusions: Elevated mortality rates at high BMI appear causal, whereas excess mortality at low BMI is likely exaggerated by confounding by factors including concurrent ill health. Conventional studies probably underestimate the adverse population health consequences of overweight.  
  Address Department of Public Health and General Practice, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0300-5771 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference (up)  
  Notes PMID:29206928 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 1896  
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Author url  doi
  Title Worldwide trends in blood pressure from 1975 to 2015: a pooled analysis of 1479 population-based measurement studies with 19.1 million participants Type Comment
  Year 2017 Publication Lancet (London, England) Abbreviated Journal Lancet  
  Volume 389 Issue 10064 Pages 37-55  
  Keywords Bayes Theorem; *Blood Pressure; *Global Health; Humans; Prevalence; Risk Factors  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Raised blood pressure is an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and chronic kidney disease. We estimated worldwide trends in mean systolic and mean diastolic blood pressure, and the prevalence of, and number of people with, raised blood pressure, defined as systolic blood pressure of 140 mm Hg or higher or diastolic blood pressure of 90 mm Hg or higher. METHODS: For this analysis, we pooled national, subnational, or community population-based studies that had measured blood pressure in adults aged 18 years and older. We used a Bayesian hierarchical model to estimate trends from 1975 to 2015 in mean systolic and mean diastolic blood pressure, and the prevalence of raised blood pressure for 200 countries. We calculated the contributions of changes in prevalence versus population growth and ageing to the increase in the number of adults with raised blood pressure. FINDINGS: We pooled 1479 studies that had measured the blood pressures of 19.1 million adults. Global age-standardised mean systolic blood pressure in 2015 was 127.0 mm Hg (95% credible interval 125.7-128.3) in men and 122.3 mm Hg (121.0-123.6) in women; age-standardised mean diastolic blood pressure was 78.7 mm Hg (77.9-79.5) for men and 76.7 mm Hg (75.9-77.6) for women. Global age-standardised prevalence of raised blood pressure was 24.1% (21.4-27.1) in men and 20.1% (17.8-22.5) in women in 2015. Mean systolic and mean diastolic blood pressure decreased substantially from 1975 to 2015 in high-income western and Asia Pacific countries, moving these countries from having some of the highest worldwide blood pressure in 1975 to the lowest in 2015. Mean blood pressure also decreased in women in central and eastern Europe, Latin America and the Caribbean, and, more recently, central Asia, Middle East, and north Africa, but the estimated trends in these super-regions had larger uncertainty than in high-income super-regions. By contrast, mean blood pressure might have increased in east and southeast Asia, south Asia, Oceania, and sub-Saharan Africa. In 2015, central and eastern Europe, sub-Saharan Africa, and south Asia had the highest blood pressure levels. Prevalence of raised blood pressure decreased in high-income and some middle-income countries; it remained unchanged elsewhere. The number of adults with raised blood pressure increased from 594 million in 1975 to 1.13 billion in 2015, with the increase largely in low-income and middle-income countries. The global increase in the number of adults with raised blood pressure is a net effect of increase due to population growth and ageing, and decrease due to declining age-specific prevalence. INTERPRETATION: During the past four decades, the highest worldwide blood pressure levels have shifted from high-income countries to low-income countries in south Asia and sub-Saharan Africa due to opposite trends, while blood pressure has been persistently high in central and eastern Europe. FUNDING: Wellcome Trust.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author NCD Risk Factor Collaboration (NCD-RisC) Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0140-6736 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference (up)  
  Notes PMID:27863813; PMCID:PMC5220163 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 1897  
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Author Folling, I.S.; Kulseng, B.; Midthjell, K.; Rangul, V.; Helvik, A.-S. url  doi
  Title Individuals at high risk for type 2 diabetes invited to a lifestyle program: characteristics of participants versus non-participants (the HUNT Study) and 24-month follow-up of participants (the VEND-RISK Study) Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care Abbreviated Journal BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care  
  Volume 5 Issue 1 Pages e000368  
  Keywords Findrisc; lifestyle programme; non-participants; primary health care; type 2 diabetes  
  Abstract OBJECTIVE: Prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus is possible through lifestyle programs, but the effect depends on the program's content, resources, and setting. Lifestyle programs are often confronted with high rates of non-participation and attrition. This study invited individuals at high risk for type 2 diabetes to a lifestyle program in the Norwegian primary healthcare setting. The aims were to investigate possible differences in characteristics between participants and non-participants and to study the effect of the lifestyle program at 24-month follow-up for participants. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Individuals identified at high risk for type 2 diabetes during the third survey of the Nord-Trondelag Health Study (HUNT3) from two municipalities (n=332) were invited to a lifestyle program (the VEND-RISK Study). A cross-sectional design was used to explore if the participants' characteristics differed from non-participants. A non-randomized, single-arm, pre-post examination was used to examine the effect of the lifestyle program on participants' characteristics at 24-month follow-up. RESULTS: Of all individuals at high risk for type 2 diabetes invited to the lifestyle program, 86% (287/332) declined to participate. Non-participating women had fewer years of education (p<0.001), compared with participating women. For men, no differences were seen between non-participants and participants. Among all participants (n=45) at 24-month follow-up, none had developed type 2 diabetes, and HbA1c (p<0.001) had decreased significantly. There was a small reduction in mean body mass index from baseline to 24 months that was not statistically significant. For women, waist circumference (-4.0 cm, p<0.001) decreased significantly. CONCLUSIONS: Future research regarding individuals at high risk for type 2 diabetes in the primary healthcare lifestyle program should focus on how to promote recruitment of women with low education. Participants attending this study's lifestyle program improved their cardiometabolic markers. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION: NCT01135901; Results.  
  Address St. Olavs University Hospital, Trondheim, Norway  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2052-4897 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference (up)  
  Notes PMID:28878932; PMCID:PMC5574427 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 1899  
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Author Gabin, J.M.; Tambs, K.; Saltvedt, I.; Sund, E.; Holmen, J. url  doi
  Title Association between blood pressure and Alzheimer disease measured up to 27 years prior to diagnosis: the HUNT Study Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Alzheimer's Research & Therapy Abbreviated Journal Alzheimers Res Ther  
  Volume 9 Issue 1 Pages 37  
  Keywords Age Distribution; Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Alzheimer Disease/*diagnosis/*epidemiology; Asymptomatic Diseases/*epidemiology; Blood Pressure Determination/statistics & numerical data; Comorbidity; Dementia/diagnosis/epidemiology; Disease Progression; Female; Humans; Hypertension/*diagnostic imaging/*epidemiology; Incidence; Longitudinal Studies; Male; Middle Aged; Norway/epidemiology; Prevalence; Reproducibility of Results; Risk Factors; Sensitivity and Specificity; Sex Distribution; Alzheimer disease; Blood pressure; Epidemiology; Prospective case cohort; Risk factors; Vascular dementia  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: A lot of attention has been paid to the relationship of blood pressure and dementia because epidemiological research has reported conflicting evidence. Observational data has shown that midlife hypertension is a risk factor for cognitive decline and dementia later in life, whereas there is evidence that low blood pressure is predictive in later life. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between dementia and blood pressure measured up to 27 years (mean 17.6 years) prior to ascertainment. METHODS: In Nord-Trondelag County, Norway, incident dementia data were collected during 1995-2011, and the diagnoses were validated by a panel of experts in the field. By using the subjects' personal identification numbers, the dementia data were linked to data from the Nord-Trondelag Health Study (the HUNT Study), a large, population-based health study performed in 1984-1986 (HUNT 1) and 1995-1997 (HUNT 2). A total of 24,638 participants of the HUNT Study were included in the present study, 579 of whom were diagnosed with Alzheimer disease, mixed Alzheimer/vascular dementia, or vascular dementia. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to analyze the association between dementia and blood pressure data from HUNT 1 and HUNT 2. RESULTS: Over the age of 60 years, consistent inverse associations were observed between systolic blood pressure and all-cause dementia, mixed Alzheimer/vascular dementia, and Alzheimer disease, but not with vascular dementia, when adjusting for age, sex, education, and other relevant covariates. This was observed for systolic blood pressure in both HUNT 1 and HUNT 2, regardless of antihypertensive medication use. There was an adverse association between systolic blood pressure, pulse pressure, and Alzheimer disease in individuals treated with antihypertensive medication under the age of 60 years. CONCLUSIONS: Our data are in line with those in previous studies demonstrating an inverse association between dementia and systolic blood pressure in individuals over the age of 60 years. We cannot exclude a survival effect, however. Among middle-aged subjects (<60 years), elevated systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure were associated with eventual Alzheimer disease in individuals who reported using antihypertensive medication.  
  Address HUNT Research Centre, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences , Department of Public Health and Nursing, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Forskningsveien 2, 7600, Levanger, Norway  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1758-9193 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference (up)  
  Notes PMID:28569205; PMCID:PMC5452294 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 1900  
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Author Gemes, K.; Malmo, V.; Laugsand, L.E.; Loennechen, J.P.; Ellekjaer, H.; Laszlo, K.D.; Ahnve, S.; Vatten, L.J.; Mukamal, K.J.; Janszky, I. url  doi
  Title Does Moderate Drinking Increase the Risk of Atrial Fibrillation? The Norwegian HUNT (Nord-Trondelag Health) Study Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Journal of the American Heart Association Abbreviated Journal J Am Heart Assoc  
  Volume 6 Issue 10 Pages  
  Keywords Hunt; alcohol; atrial fibrillation; cohort study; epidemiology; moderate alcohol  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Compelling evidence suggests that excessive alcohol consumption increases the risk of atrial fibrillation (AF), but the effect of light-moderate alcohol consumption is less certain. We investigated the association between alcohol consumption within recommended limits and AF risk in a light-drinking population. METHODS AND RESULTS: Among 47 002 participants with information on alcohol consumption in a population-based cohort study in Norway, conducted from October 2006 to June 2008, 1697 validated AF diagnoses were registered during the 8 years of follow-up. We used Cox proportional hazard models with fractional polynomials to analyze the association between alcohol intake and AF. Population attributable risk for drinking within the recommended limit (ie, at most 1 drink per day for women and 2 drinks per day for men without risky drinking) compared with nondrinking was also calculated. The average alcohol intake was 3.8+/-4.8 g/d. The adjusted hazard ratio for AF was 1.38 (95% confidence interval, 1.06-1.80) when we compared participants consuming >7 drinks per week with abstainers. When we modeled the quantity of alcohol intake as a continuous variable, the risk increased in a curvilinear manner. It was higher with heavier alcohol intake, but there was virtually no association at <1 drink per day for women and <2 drinks per day for men in the absence of risky drinking. The population attributable risk among nonrisky drinkers was 0.07% (95% confidence interval, -0.01% to 0.13%). CONCLUSIONS: Although alcohol consumption was associated with a curvilinearly increasing risk of AF in general, the attributable risk of alcohol consumption within recommended limits among participants without binge or problem drinking was negligible in this population.  
  Address Regional Center for Health Care Improvement, St Olav's Hospital, Trondheim, Norway  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2047-9980 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference (up)  
  Notes PMID:29054845; PMCID:PMC5721892 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 1901  
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Author Felde, G.; Ebbesen, M.H.; Hunskaar, S. url  doi
  Title Anxiety and depression associated with urinary incontinence. A 10-year follow-up study from the Norwegian HUNT study (EPINCONT) Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Neurourology and Urodynamics Abbreviated Journal Neurourol Urodyn  
  Volume 36 Issue 2 Pages 322-328  
  Keywords Adult; Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Anxiety/*epidemiology/etiology/psychology; Depression/*epidemiology/etiology/psychology; Female; Humans; Incidence; Longitudinal Studies; Middle Aged; Norway; Prevalence; Risk Factors; Urinary Incontinence/*complications/psychology; Young Adult; Epincont; Hads; Hunt; anxiety; depression; epidemiology; urinary incontinence  
  Abstract AIMS: Firstly, to investigate the association between depression, anxiety and urinary incontinence (UI) in a 10-year longitudinal study of women. Secondly, to investigate the association between possible differences in the stress- and urgency components of UI and different severities of depression and anxiety by age groups. METHODS: In a longitudinal, population-based survey study, the EPINCONT part of the HUNT study in Norway, we analyzed questionnaire data on UI, depression and anxiety from 16,263 women from 20 years of age. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to predict the odds of developing anxiety and depression among the women with and without UI at baseline and the odds of developing UI among the women with and without anxiety or depression at baseline. RESULTS: For women with any UI at baseline we found an association with the incidence of depression and anxiety symptoms, OR 1.45 (1.23-1.72) and 1.26 (1.8-1.47) for mild depression and anxiety respectively. For women with depression or anxiety symptoms at baseline we found an association with the incidence of any UI with OR 2.09 (1.55-2.83) and 1.65 (1.34-2.03) for moderate/severe symptom-score for depression and anxiety, respectively, for the whole sample. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, both depression and anxiety are shown to be risk factors for developing UI with a dose-dependent trend. UI is associated with increased incidence of depression and anxiety. Neurourol. Urodynam. 36:322-328, 2017. (c) 2015 The Authors. Neurourology and Urodynamics Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.  
  Address National Centre for Emergency Primary Health Care, Uni Research Health, Bergen, Norway  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0733-2467 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference (up)  
  Notes PMID:26584597 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 1902  
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Author Ferreira, M.A.; Vonk, J.M.; Baurecht, H.; Marenholz, I.; Tian, C.; Hoffman, J.D.; Helmer, Q.; Tillander, A.; Ullemar, V.; van Dongen, J.; Lu, Y.; Ruschendorf, F.; Esparza-Gordillo, J.; Medway, C.W.; Mountjoy, E.; Burrows, K.; Hummel, O.; Grosche, S.; Brumpton, B.M.; Witte, J.S.; Hottenga, J.-J.; Willemsen, G.; Zheng, J.; Rodriguez, E.; Hotze, M.; Franke, A.; Revez, J.A.; Beesley, J.; Matheson, M.C.; Dharmage, S.C.; Bain, L.M.; Fritsche, L.G.; Gabrielsen, M.E.; Balliu, B.; Nielsen, J.B.; Zhou, W.; Hveem, K.; Langhammer, A.; Holmen, O.L.; Loset, M.; Abecasis, G.R.; Willer, C.J.; Arnold, A.; Homuth, G.; Schmidt, C.O.; Thompson, P.J.; Martin, N.G.; Duffy, D.L.; Novak, N.; Schulz, H.; Karrasch, S.; Gieger, C.; Strauch, K.; Melles, R.B.; Hinds, D.A.; Hubner, N.; Weidinger, S.; Magnusson, P.K.E.; Jansen, R.; Jorgenson, E.; Lee, Y.-A.; Boomsma, D.I.; Almqvist, C.; Karlsson, R.; Koppelman, G.H.; Paternoster, L. url  doi
  Title Shared genetic origin of asthma, hay fever and eczema elucidates allergic disease biology Type Meta-Analysis
  Year 2017 Publication Nature Genetics Abbreviated Journal Nat Genet  
  Volume 49 Issue 12 Pages 1752-1757  
  Keywords Asthma/*genetics; Eczema/*genetics; Genetic Predisposition to Disease/*genetics; Genome-Wide Association Study/methods; Humans; Hypersensitivity/*genetics; Phenotype; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide; Rhinitis, Allergic, Seasonal/*genetics; Risk Factors  
  Abstract Asthma, hay fever (or allergic rhinitis) and eczema (or atopic dermatitis) often coexist in the same individuals, partly because of a shared genetic origin. To identify shared risk variants, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS; n = 360,838) of a broad allergic disease phenotype that considers the presence of any one of these three diseases. We identified 136 independent risk variants (P < 3 x 10(-8)), including 73 not previously reported, which implicate 132 nearby genes in allergic disease pathophysiology. Disease-specific effects were detected for only six variants, confirming that most represent shared risk factors. Tissue-specific heritability and biological process enrichment analyses suggest that shared risk variants influence lymphocyte-mediated immunity. Six target genes provide an opportunity for drug repositioning, while for 36 genes CpG methylation was found to influence transcription independently of genetic effects. Asthma, hay fever and eczema partly coexist because they share many genetic risk variants that dysregulate the expression of immune-related genes.  
  Address MRC Integrative Epidemiology Unit, School of Social and Community Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK  
  Corporate Author LifeLines Cohort Study Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1061-4036 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference (up)  
  Notes PMID:29083406 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 1903  
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Author Daneshvar, F.; Weinreich, M.; Daneshvar, D.; Sperling, M.; Salmane, C.; Yacoub, H.; Gabriels, J.; McGinn, T.; Smith, M.C. url  doi
  Title Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Internal Medicine Residents: Are Future Physicians Becoming Deconditioned? Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Journal of Graduate Medical Education Abbreviated Journal J Grad Med Educ  
  Volume 9 Issue 1 Pages 97-101  
  Keywords *Cardiorespiratory Fitness; Cross-Sectional Studies; Education, Medical, Graduate; Exercise/*psychology; Female; Habits; Humans; Internal Medicine/*education; *Internship and Residency; Male; New York; Surveys and Questionnaires; Time Factors  
  Abstract BACKGROUND : Previous studies have shown a falloff in physicians' physical activity from medical school to residency. Poor fitness may result in stress, increase resident burnout, and contribute to mortality from cardiovascular disease and other causes. Physicians with poor exercise habits are also less likely to counsel patients about exercise. Prior studies have reported resident physical activity but not cardiorespiratory fitness age. OBJECTIVE : The study was conducted in 2 residency programs (3 hospitals) to assess internal medicine residents' exercise habits as well as their cardiorespiratory fitness age. METHODS : Data regarding physical fitness levels and exercise habits were collected in an anonymous cross-sectional survey. Cardiopulmonary fitness age was determined using fitness calculator based on the Nord-Trondelag Health Study (HUNT). RESULTS : Of 199 eligible physicians, 125 (63%) responded to the survey. Of respondents, 11 (9%) reported never having exercised prior to residency and 45 (36%) reported not exercising during residency (P < .001). In addition, 42 (34%) reported exercising every day prior to residency, while only 5 (4%) reported exercising daily during residency (P < .001), with 99 (79%) participants indicating residency obligations as their main barrier to exercise. We found residents' calculated mean fitness age to be 5.6 years higher than their mean chronological age (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS : Internal medicine residents reported significant decreases in physical activity and fitness. Residents attributed time constraints due to training as a key barrier to physical activity.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1949-8357 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference (up)  
  Notes PMID:28261402; PMCID:PMC5330203 Approved no  
  Call Number HUNT @ maria.stuifbergen @ Serial 1904  
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Author Evensen, M.; Lyngstad, T.H.; Melkevik, O.; Reneflot, A.; Mykletun, A. url  doi
  Title Adolescent mental health and earnings inequalities in adulthood: evidence from the Young-HUNT Study Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health Abbreviated Journal J Epidemiol Community Health  
  Volume 71 Issue 2 Pages 201-206  
  Keywords Employment; Inequalities; Longitudinal Studies; Mental Health; Social and life-course epidemiology  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that adolescent mental health problems are associated with lower employment probabilities and risk of unemployment. The evidence on how earnings are affected is much weaker, and few have addressed whether any association reflects unobserved characteristics and whether the consequences of mental health problems vary across the earnings distribution. METHODS: A population-based Norwegian health survey linked to administrative registry data (N=7885) was used to estimate how adolescents' mental health problems (separate indicator